Abstract

A vacuum-free ultrafast laser-based x-ray source is demonstrated. Hard x-rays up to 80KeV are generated from Cu, Mo, Ag, Sn, and Ge targets in a laminar helium flow surrounded by atmosphere using tightly focused 33fs, 3mJ laser pulses. X-ray spectra, conversion efficiencies, and source sizes are presented. Six-fold efficiency improvement is observed, over similar sources found in the literature [1]. Source sizes determined for Cu and Mo show distinct dependences on laser pulse energy. It is also shown that the Cu source size has no dependence on the presence of the spectral band around the 8KeV K-shell lines.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Benesch, T. Lee, Y. Jiang, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, "Ultrafast laser-driven x-ray spectrometer for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal complexes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1028-1030 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, "Absorption of ultrashort, ultra-Intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 1954-1068 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Mourou, C. P. J. Barry, and M. D. Perry, "Ultrahigh-intensity lasers: physics of the extreme on a tabletop," Phys. Today 51, 22 -28 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Kieffer, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and J. Dubau, "Electron distribution anisotropy in laser produced-plasmas from x-ray line polarization measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 480-483 (1992).
  9. D. Umstadter, "Relativistic laser-plasma interactions," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, R151-R165 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Y. Kim, I Alexeev, and H, M. Milchberg, "Single-shot measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium," Opt. Express 10, 1563-1572 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. V. Yanovsky, C. Felix, and G. Mourou, "Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?" Appl. Phys. B 74, S181-S183 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Easter, B. Hou, E. Power, and J. Nees, "Stable long-cavity regenerative amplifier with 10-11 ASE contrast," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuD6.
  16. K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.
  21. D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. T. Bowes, H. Langhoff, M. C. Downer, M. Wilcox, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, "Femtosecond microscopy of radial energy transport in a micro-scale aluminum plasma excited at relativistic intensity," Opt. Lett. 31, 116-118 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

B. Hou, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Generation of hard x-rays by femtosecond laser pulse interaction with Cu in laminar helium flow in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Bowes, H. Langhoff, M. C. Downer, M. Wilcox, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, "Femtosecond microscopy of radial energy transport in a micro-scale aluminum plasma excited at relativistic intensity," Opt. Lett. 31, 116-118 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Benesch, T. Lee, Y. Jiang, and C. G. Rose-Petruck, "Ultrafast laser-driven x-ray spectrometer for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal complexes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1028-1030 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Umstadter, "Relativistic laser-plasma interactions," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, R151-R165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

V. Yanovsky, C. Felix, and G. Mourou, "Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?" Appl. Phys. B 74, S181-S183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, I Alexeev, and H, M. Milchberg, "Single-shot measurement of laser-induced double step ionization of helium," Opt. Express 10, 1563-1572 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. A. Mourou, C. P. J. Barry, and M. D. Perry, "Ultrahigh-intensity lasers: physics of the extreme on a tabletop," Phys. Today 51, 22 -28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, "Absorption of ultrashort, ultra-Intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 1954-1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Kieffer, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and J. Dubau, "Electron distribution anisotropy in laser produced-plasmas from x-ray line polarization measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 480-483 (1992).

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albert, O.

Alexeev, I

Amiranoff, F.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barry, C. P. J.

G. A. Mourou, C. P. J. Barry, and M. D. Perry, "Ultrahigh-intensity lasers: physics of the extreme on a tabletop," Phys. Today 51, 22 -28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benesch, F.

Bixue Hou, A.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boschetto, D.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bowes, B. T.

Brown, G. S.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlain, C. C.

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. M.

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chessa, P.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Wispelaere, E.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorchies, F.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Easter, J.

B. Hou, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Generation of hard x-rays by femtosecond laser pulse interaction with Cu in laminar helium flow in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.

Fallies, F.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, C. L.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, K.-H.

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

B. Hou, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Generation of hard x-rays by femtosecond laser pulse interaction with Cu in laminar helium flow in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Bowes, H. Langhoff, M. C. Downer, M. Wilcox, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, "Femtosecond microscopy of radial energy transport in a micro-scale aluminum plasma excited at relativistic intensity," Opt. Lett. 31, 116-118 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.

Jiang, Y.

Kieffer, J. C.

J. C. Kieffer, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and J. Dubau, "Electron distribution anisotropy in laser produced-plasmas from x-ray line polarization measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 480-483 (1992).

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Kmetec, J. D.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krol, A.

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kruer, W. L.

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, "Absorption of ultrashort, ultra-Intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 1954-1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krushelnick, K.

B. Hou, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Generation of hard x-rays by femtosecond laser pulse interaction with Cu in laminar helium flow in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhoff, H.

Lee, T.

Lemoff, B. E.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

Macklin, J. J.

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malka, V.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marquès, J. R.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matte, J. P.

J. C. Kieffer, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and J. Dubau, "Electron distribution anisotropy in laser produced-plasmas from x-ray line polarization measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 480-483 (1992).

Mora, P.

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mordovanakis, A.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.

Mourou, G.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Bowes, H. Langhoff, M. C. Downer, M. Wilcox, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, "Femtosecond microscopy of radial energy transport in a micro-scale aluminum plasma excited at relativistic intensity," Opt. Lett. 31, 116-118 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G. A.

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Mourou, C. P. J. Barry, and M. D. Perry, "Ultrahigh-intensity lasers: physics of the extreme on a tabletop," Phys. Today 51, 22 -28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Bowes, H. Langhoff, M. C. Downer, M. Wilcox, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, "Femtosecond microscopy of radial energy transport in a micro-scale aluminum plasma excited at relativistic intensity," Opt. Lett. 31, 116-118 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nees, J. A.

B. Hou, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Generation of hard x-rays by femtosecond laser pulse interaction with Cu in laminar helium flow in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.

Perry, M. D.

G. A. Mourou, C. P. J. Barry, and M. D. Perry, "Ultrahigh-intensity lasers: physics of the extreme on a tabletop," Phys. Today 51, 22 -28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Power, E.

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C. G.

Rousse, A.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Santos, A.

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Theobald, W.

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, D.

D. Umstadter, "Relativistic laser-plasma interactions," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, R151-R165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wilcox, M.

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Bowes, H. Langhoff, M. C. Downer, M. Wilcox, B. Hou, J. Nees, and G. Mourou, "Femtosecond microscopy of radial energy transport in a micro-scale aluminum plasma excited at relativistic intensity," Opt. Lett. 31, 116-118 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, "Absorption of ultrashort, ultra-Intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 1954-1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky,

V. Yanovsky, C. Felix, and G. Mourou, "Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?" Appl. Phys. B 74, S181-S183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

V. Yanovsky, C. Felix, and G. Mourou, "Why ring regenerative amplification (regen)?" Appl. Phys. B 74, S181-S183 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hong, B. Hou, J. A. Nees, E. Power, and G. A. Mourou, "Generation and measurement of >108 intensity contrast ratio in a relativistic kHz chirped-pulse amplified laser," Appl. Phys. B 81, 447-457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. Nees, A. Mordovanakis, M. Wilcox, G. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, C. C. Chamberlain, and A. Krol, "Hard x-ray generation from solids driven by relativistic intensity in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. B 83, 81-85 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Hou, A. Mordovanakis, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Directional properties of hard x-ray sources generated by tightly focused ultrafast laser pulses," submitted toAppl. Phys. Lett.

D. Boschetto, G. Mourou, A. Rousse, A. Mordovanakis, Bixue Hou, J. Nees, D. Kumah, and R. Clarke, "Spatial coherence properties of a compact and ultrafast laser-produced plasma KeV x-ray source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. Easter, K. Krushelnick, and J. A. Nees, "Generation of hard x-rays by femtosecond laser pulse interaction with Cu in laminar helium flow in ambient air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 161501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Hou, J. A. Nees, W. Theobald, G. A. Mourou, L. M. Chen, J.-C. Kieffer, A. Krol, and C. C. Chamberlain, "Dependence of hard x-ray yield on laser pulse parameters in the wavelength-cubed regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 2259-2261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, "Absorption of ultrashort, ultra-Intense laser light by solids and overdense plasmas," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 33, 1954-1068 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

A. Rousse, A. Antonetti, P. Audebert, A. Santos, F. Fallies, J. Geindre, G. Grillon, A. Mysyrowicz, and J. Gauthier, "Observation of x-ray fluorescence resulting from photoionization by a femtosecond laser-produced x-ray source," J. Phys. B 27, L697-L701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Umstadter, "Relativistic laser-plasma interactions," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, R151-R165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. C. Kieffer, J. P. Matte, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, Y. Beaudoin, T. W. Johnston, C. Y. Chien, S. Coe, G. Mourou, and J. Dubau, "Electron distribution anisotropy in laser produced-plasmas from x-ray line polarization measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 480-483 (1992).

J. D. Kmetec, C. L. GordonIII, J. J. Macklin, B. E. Lemoff, G. S. Brown, and S. E. Harris, "MeV x-ray generation with a femtosecond laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1527-1530 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227-1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, "Temporal and angular resolution of the ionization-induced refraction of a short laser pulse in helium gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552-555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

G. A. Mourou, C. P. J. Barry, and M. D. Perry, "Ultrahigh-intensity lasers: physics of the extreme on a tabletop," Phys. Today 51, 22 -28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, "Terawatt to petawatt subpicosecond lasers," Science 264, 917-924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Thompson, X-ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2001), http://xdb.lbl.gov.

J. Easter, B. Hou, E. Power, and J. Nees, "Stable long-cavity regenerative amplifier with 10-11 ASE contrast," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JTuD6.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

1015 and 1016 W/cm2 iso-intensity contours, corresponding to the collisionless ionization intensities of singly and fully ionized helium

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser layout

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

X-ray generation setup in open space

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is used for fine adjustment of nozzle position. (a): air-breakdown spectrum, (b): breakdown spectrum obtained with the helium nozzle in optimal position

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

X-ray spectra are generated from Cu, Ge, Mo, Ag, and Sn in a flowing helium environment. The Kα and Kβ line emissions are observed for all target materials (see insets). Kα and Kβ lines for each element: Cu, 8.05KeV, 8.93KeV; Ge, 9.90KeV, 11.05KeV; Mo, 17.47KeV, 19.67KeV; Ag, 22.14KeV, 24.95KeV; Sn, 25.30KeV, 28.56KeV. All these peak positions are in excellent agreement with the values in ref. 18.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission curves of 48-µm-thick Cu, 25-µm Zn, and 33.8-µm Fe foils

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

X-ray source size scaling with incident laser pulse energy for Cu and Mo targets. Squares are horizontal dimensions and triangles are vertical.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured Kα and total x-ray CEs, Kα fluxes, and source sizes in flowing helium. Also listed, for comparison, are relative efficiency ratios based on extrapolated results from vacuum experiments [19].

Tables Icon

Table 2. Cu x-ray source sizes are measured in gently flowing helium with different filters.

Metrics