Abstract

We propose an original diffraction grating demultiplexer device with a very small footprint, designed for the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform. The wavelength dispersive properties are provided by a second-order diffraction grating designed to be lithographically defined and etched in the sidewall of a curved Si waveguide. The grating is blazed to maximize the -1st order diffraction efficiency. The diffracted light is coupled into the silicon slab waveguide via an impedance matching subwavelength grating gradient index antireflective interface. The waveguide is curved in order to focus the light onto the Rowland circle, where different wavelengths are intercepted by different receiver waveguides. The phase errors were substantially reduced using an apodized design with a chirped grating, which assures a constant effective index along the grating length. The simulated crosstalk is -30 dB. The device has 15 channels with a spacing of 25 nm, thus a broadband operational bandwidth of 375 nm. Its performance approaches the diffraction limit. The layout size is 90 µm×140 µm, which is the smallest footprint yet reported for a mux/dmux device of a similar performance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (3)

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

Y. Komai, H. Nagano, K. Okamoto and K. Kodate, "Spectroscopic sensing using a visible arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE 5867, 91-102 (2005).

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Delâge and K. Dossou, "Polarisation dependent loss calculation in echelle gratings using finite element method and Rayleigh expansion," Opt. Quantum Electron 36, 223-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, "Estimation of waveguide phase error in silica-based waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107-2113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1882 (1)

H. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of results accomplished on the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purposes," Phil. Mag.Suppl. 13, 469-474 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Balakrishnan, A.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bezinger, A.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bidnyk, S.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bisaillon, E.

E. Bisaillon, D. T. H. Tan, M.-C. Nadeau, L. Chrostowski and A. G. Kirk, "Distributed-grating wavelength demultiplexer in SOI," IEEE LEOS 462-463 (2006).

Bogaerts, W.

Brouckaert, J.

Charbonneau, S.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

E. Bisaillon, D. T. H. Tan, M.-C. Nadeau, L. Chrostowski and A. G. Kirk, "Distributed-grating wavelength demultiplexer in SOI," IEEE LEOS 462-463 (2006).

Cloutier, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Delâge and K. Dossou, "Polarisation dependent loss calculation in echelle gratings using finite element method and Rayleigh expansion," Opt. Quantum Electron 36, 223-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Dossou, K.

A. Delâge and K. Dossou, "Polarisation dependent loss calculation in echelle gratings using finite element method and Rayleigh expansion," Opt. Quantum Electron 36, 223-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Erickson, L.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, J. W.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, M.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goh, T.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, "Estimation of waveguide phase error in silica-based waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107-2113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Y.

Hugonin, J.-P.

Janz, S.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Kirk, A. G.

E. Bisaillon, D. T. H. Tan, M.-C. Nadeau, L. Chrostowski and A. G. Kirk, "Distributed-grating wavelength demultiplexer in SOI," IEEE LEOS 462-463 (2006).

Kodate, K.

Y. Komai, H. Nagano, K. Okamoto and K. Kodate, "Spectroscopic sensing using a visible arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE 5867, 91-102 (2005).

Komai, Y.

Y. Komai, H. Nagano, K. Okamoto and K. Kodate, "Spectroscopic sensing using a visible arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE 5867, 91-102 (2005).

Krug, P. A.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lamontagne, B.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motegi, A.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nadeau, M.-C.

E. Bisaillon, D. T. H. Tan, M.-C. Nadeau, L. Chrostowski and A. G. Kirk, "Distributed-grating wavelength demultiplexer in SOI," IEEE LEOS 462-463 (2006).

Nagano, H.

Y. Komai, H. Nagano, K. Okamoto and K. Kodate, "Spectroscopic sensing using a visible arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE 5867, 91-102 (2005).

Ohno, F.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

C. R. Doerr and K. Okamoto, "Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4763-4789 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Komai, H. Nagano, K. Okamoto and K. Kodate, "Spectroscopic sensing using a visible arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE 5867, 91-102 (2005).

Packirisamy, M.

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, M. R. T.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M.-J.

Post, E.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, H.

H. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of results accomplished on the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purposes," Phil. Mag.Suppl. 13, 469-474 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, "Estimation of waveguide phase error in silica-based waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107-2113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

T. Goh, S. Suzuki, and A. Sugita, "Estimation of waveguide phase error in silica-based waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2107-2113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Tan, D. T. H.

E. Bisaillon, D. T. H. Tan, M.-C. Nadeau, L. Chrostowski and A. G. Kirk, "Distributed-grating wavelength demultiplexer in SOI," IEEE LEOS 462-463 (2006).

Thourhout, D. V.

Van Thourhout, D.

Waldron, P.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wu, Y.

Xu, D.-X.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post and D.-X. Xu, "Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets," Opt. Lett. 32, 1794-1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron and D.-X. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 299-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Ye, W. N.

Yin, J.

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi and T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Janz, A. Balakrishnan, S. Charbonneau, P. Cheben, M. Cloutier, A. Delâge, K. Dossou, L. Erickson, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, B. Lamontagne, M. Packirisamy, M. Pearson and D.-X. Xu, "Planar waveguide echelle gratings in silica-on-silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 503-505 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Bidnyk, D. Feng, A. Balakrishnan, M. Pearson, M. Gao, H. Liang, W. Qian, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, J. Yin and M. Asghari, "Silicon-on-insulator-based planar circuit for passive optical network applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2392-2394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673-L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron (1)

A. Delâge and K. Dossou, "Polarisation dependent loss calculation in echelle gratings using finite element method and Rayleigh expansion," Opt. Quantum Electron 36, 223-238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag. (1)

H. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of results accomplished on the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purposes," Phil. Mag.Suppl. 13, 469-474 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," Proc. SPIE 3953, 11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," Proc. SPIE 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," Proc. SPIE 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer," Proc. SPIE 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Komai, H. Nagano, K. Okamoto and K. Kodate, "Spectroscopic sensing using a visible arrayed-waveguide grating," Proc. SPIE 5867, 91-102 (2005).

Other (4)

X. J. M. Leijtens, B. Kuhlow and M. K. Smit, "Arrayed waveguide gratings," in Wavelength filters in fiber optics, H. Venghaus, (Springer Verlag, 2006), pp. 125-187.

P. Cheben, "Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings," in Optical waveguides: from theory to applied technologies, M. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, eds., (CRC Press, 2007), pp. 173-230.

D. Marcuse, Light transmission optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1982).

E. Bisaillon, D. T. H. Tan, M.-C. Nadeau, L. Chrostowski and A. G. Kirk, "Distributed-grating wavelength demultiplexer in SOI," IEEE LEOS 462-463 (2006).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Demultiplexer schematics. The light propagating in the input waveguide is diffracted by a blazed sidewall grating and coupled to a slab waveguide via impedance matching SWG GRIN boundary. The waveguide is curved to provide focusing. Demultiplexed wavelength channels are intercepted by the receiver waveguides starting at the Rowland circle. (b) 3D cross section of the sidewall grating and SWG GRIN AR boundary.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the analytical model. Points along the grating curve represent the facets j=1,2,…, N. R is the Rowland radius, Δθj is the angle between the 1st and jth facet, and dj is the distance from the jth facet to a specific point at the focal curve (Rowland circle). For each point along the discretized focal plane, the sum of light contribution from all the facets is calculated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated demultiplexer spectra using a discretized Kirchhoff-Huygens diffraction integral for 11 wavelength channels from λ=1.39 µm-1.665 µm, with a wavelength spacing of 25 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation layout of the sidewall grating demultiplexer. FDTD simulations were performed for this straight rather than curved waveguide geometry and light distribution in the focal plane was calculated using a far-field integral of the near field in the Si slab. Optimized design with apodized chirped grating is discussed in section 1.3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Field amplitude and phase profiles in the proximity of sidewall grating for λ=1540 nm. The phase is shown as modulo 2π. (b) Calculated far-field profile with the principle peak at -5° and the satellite peaks at -42°, -23°, -5° and 28°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Near-Gaussian amplitude profile in the proximity of the grating for λ=1540 nm. The corresponding phase is shown as mod 2π. The variation in the phase tilt along the waveguide and corresponding change in the direction of the wave vectors k1, k2 , and k3 . (b) Calculated far-field profile reveals the angular broadening due to the apodization-induced effective index variation along the grating.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Far-field peak angles as a function of grating pitch, for various modulation depths. Dashed lines indicate the grating pitches yielding a far-field peak angle of 0° at λ=1540 nm for different grating modulation depths. (b).3rd order polynomial fit of pitch-depth dependency for a constant effective index (phase tilt) along the grating length, yielding far-field peak at 0°.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). Near-field Gaussian amplitude profile for λ=1540 nm. The phase is shown as mod 2π. Light propagating in the direction of wavevector k yielding a far-field peak at 0°. (b). Calculated far-field distribution reveals an efficient angular broadening suppression compared to the design with no phase correction (Fig. 6(b)).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Calculated demultiplexer spectra. 15 wavelength channels spaced at 25 nm, wavelength range λ=1415 nm-1765 nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ ( x ' , y ' ) = C Ψ ( x , y ) exp [ i ( ϕ w + ϕ s ) ] λ d G d C .
Ψ ( x ' , y ' ) 2 = 1 π k s R ( Δ θ ) 2 j = 1 N Ψ ( x j , y j ) exp [ i ( k w 2 R Δ θ j + k s d j ) ] 2

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