Abstract

447.3 nm blue light generation was demonstrated through direct frequency doubling a continuous-wave Cesium vapor laser’s 894.6 nm output using a PPKTP nonlinear crystal. The diode-pumped Cs vapor laser has an output power as large as 10 W with a very narrow emission linewidth less than 10 GHz. The PPKTP crystal is about 30 mm long and has a moderate acceptance wavelength bandwidth. The second harmonic wave generation efficiency achieved is about 4.4 %/W. Power depletion in second harmonic pulses, which relates to the absorption related thermal effects, was observed when using high pump power, long pulse duration, or high repetition rate.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, "Diode pumped 10 Watts continuous wave cesium laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2167-2169 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Blue light generation by frequency doubling of a 810nm GaAlAs diode laser in QPM LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037-1039 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Green and violet light generation in LiNbO3 optical SL through QPM," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3092-3094 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, and E. J. Lim, "Quasi-phase matched interactions in lithium niobate," Proc. SPIE 1148, 213-224 (1989).
  5. Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Second harmonic generation of blue light in LiNbO3 crystal with periodic ferroelectric domain structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 516-518 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1931-1933 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. G. Dmitriev, G.G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 3rd ed., (Springer, Berlin, Heideberg, 1999), p. 109.
  9. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, Y. Lu, and R. J. Knize, "Frequency-doubling of a CW fiber laser using PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN," Opt. Express 15, 12882-12889 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Z. M. Liao, S. A. Payne, J. Dawson, A. Drobschoff, E. Ebbers, D. Pennington, and L. Taylor, "Thermally induced dephasing in periodically poled KTP frequency doubling crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2191-2196 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

B. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, "Diode pumped 10 Watts continuous wave cesium laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2167-2169 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, Y. Lu, and R. J. Knize, "Frequency-doubling of a CW fiber laser using PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN," Opt. Express 15, 12882-12889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Blue light generation by frequency doubling of a 810nm GaAlAs diode laser in QPM LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037-1039 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Green and violet light generation in LiNbO3 optical SL through QPM," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3092-3094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Second harmonic generation of blue light in LiNbO3 crystal with periodic ferroelectric domain structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 516-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1931-1933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, and E. J. Lim, "Quasi-phase matched interactions in lithium niobate," Proc. SPIE 1148, 213-224 (1989).

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1931-1933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dajani, I. A.

Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, Y. Lu, and R. J. Knize, "Frequency-doubling of a CW fiber laser using PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN," Opt. Express 15, 12882-12889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, J.

Drobschoff, A.

Ebbers, E.

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1931-1933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, and E. J. Lim, "Quasi-phase matched interactions in lithium niobate," Proc. SPIE 1148, 213-224 (1989).

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knize, R. J.

Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, Y. Lu, and R. J. Knize, "Frequency-doubling of a CW fiber laser using PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN," Opt. Express 15, 12882-12889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Zhdanov and R. J. Knize, "Diode pumped 10 Watts continuous wave cesium laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 2167-2169 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kontur, F. J.

F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, Y. Lu, and R. J. Knize, "Frequency-doubling of a CW fiber laser using PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN," Opt. Express 15, 12882-12889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z. M.

Lim, E. J.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, and E. J. Lim, "Quasi-phase matched interactions in lithium niobate," Proc. SPIE 1148, 213-224 (1989).

Lu, Y.

F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, Y. Lu, and R. J. Knize, "Frequency-doubling of a CW fiber laser using PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN," Opt. Express 15, 12882-12889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Blue light generation by frequency doubling of a 810nm GaAlAs diode laser in QPM LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037-1039 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Green and violet light generation in LiNbO3 optical SL through QPM," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3092-3094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Second harmonic generation of blue light in LiNbO3 crystal with periodic ferroelectric domain structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 516-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1931-1933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, and E. J. Lim, "Quasi-phase matched interactions in lithium niobate," Proc. SPIE 1148, 213-224 (1989).

Mao, L.

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Green and violet light generation in LiNbO3 optical SL through QPM," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3092-3094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Blue light generation by frequency doubling of a 810nm GaAlAs diode laser in QPM LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037-1039 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Second harmonic generation of blue light in LiNbO3 crystal with periodic ferroelectric domain structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 516-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N. B.

Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Blue light generation by frequency doubling of a 810nm GaAlAs diode laser in QPM LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 19, 1037-1039 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Green and violet light generation in LiNbO3 optical SL through QPM," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3092-3094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Second harmonic generation of blue light in LiNbO3 crystal with periodic ferroelectric domain structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 516-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Pennington, D.

Taylor, L.

Xue, C. C.

Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhdanov, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Green and violet light generation in LiNbO3 optical SL through QPM," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3092-3094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, L. Mao, and N. B. Ming, "Second harmonic generation of blue light in LiNbO3 crystal with periodic ferroelectric domain structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 516-518 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Magel, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation of blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1931-1933 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, Y. Q. Lu, C. C. Xue, and N. B. Ming, "Formation mechanism for ferroelectric domain structures in a LiNbO3 optical superlattice," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2642-2644 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Integr. Ferroelectr. (1)

Y. Lu, F. J. Kontur, I. A. Dajani, and R. J. Knize, "Bandwidth engineering for efficient frequency doubling of high power fiber lasers using periodically poled KTP crystals," Integr. Ferroelectr. 95, 158-167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, and E. J. Lim, "Quasi-phase matched interactions in lithium niobate," Proc. SPIE 1148, 213-224 (1989).

Other (1)

V. G. Dmitriev, G.G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 3rd ed., (Springer, Berlin, Heideberg, 1999), p. 109.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for the second harmonic generation measurement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The emission spectrum of the high power Cs laser obtained with an autocorrelation interferometer. The measured emission linewidth is about 6 pm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dependence of the second harmonic on the fundamental power for pulse durations of 50 and 500 µs, respectively. The repetition rate is kept 150 Hz for both measurements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Recorded pulse shapes for both fundamental and harmonic radiations having the 50 µs (a) and 500 µs (b) pulse duration, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Recorded pulse shapes for harmonic pulses having the 500 µs pulse duration and similar power ~1.5W, but different repetition rates of 150 (left) and 4 Hz (right), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured temperature dependence of SH power in a 30 mm long PPKTP.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dn x / d T × 10 5 = 0 . 1323 λ 3 0 . 4385 λ 2 + 1 . 2307 λ 1 + 0 . 7709
dn y / d T × 10 5 = 0 . 5014 λ 3 2 . 0030 λ 2 + 3 . 3016 λ 1 + 0 . 7498
dn z / d T × 10 5 = 0 . 3896 λ 3 1 . 3332 λ 2 + 2 . 2762 λ 1 + 2 . 1151
Δ λ = 0 . 4429 λ ω L [ n 2 ω n ω λ ω + n ω λ 1 2 n 2 ω λ ] 1
Δ T = 0 . 4429 λ ω L [ n 2 ω T n ω T β ( n 2 ω n ω ) ] 1

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