Abstract

Endoscopic treatment of lower airway pathologies requires accurate quantification of airway dimensions. We demonstrate the application of a real-time endoscopic optical coherence tomography system that can image lower airway anatomy and quantify airway lumen dimensions intra-operatively. Results demonstrate the ability to acquire 3D scans of airway anatomy and include comparison against a pre-operative X-ray CT. The paper also illustrates the capability of the system to assess the real-time dynamic changes within the airway that occur during respiration.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. L. Bailey, "Imaging the airways in 2006," J. Aerosol Med. 19, 1-7 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. K. McFawn, L. Forkert, and J. T. Fisher, "A new method to perform quantitative measurement of bronchoscopic images," Eur. Respir. J. 18, 817-826 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-1826 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).
  13. C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  14. F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, A. V. Shakhov, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. B. Terent'eva, E. V. Zagainova, Yu. P. Chumakov, and I. A. Kuznetzova, "Endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 257-270 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (6)

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bailey, "Imaging the airways in 2006," J. Aerosol Med. 19, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. K. McFawn, L. Forkert, and J. T. Fisher, "A new method to perform quantitative measurement of bronchoscopic images," Eur. Respir. J. 18, 817-826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

F. I. Feldchtein, G. V. Gelikonov, V. M. Gelikonov, R. V. Kuranov, A. M. Sergeev, N. D. Gladkova, A. V. Shakhov, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. B. Terent'eva, E. V. Zagainova, Yu. P. Chumakov, and I. A. Kuznetzova, "Endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 257-270 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

Armstrong, J. J.

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, D. L.

D. L. Bailey, "Imaging the airways in 2006," J. Aerosol Med. 19, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, G.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, S.

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

Bouma, B. E.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Brenner, M.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bretthorst, G. L.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Campisi, P.

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. B.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Yu. P.

Cmiel, A.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colt, H.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colt, H. G.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conradi, M. S.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. D.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coxson, H. O.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Czaja, P.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorffel, W. V.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eastburn, M. M.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, P. R.

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Abbadi, N. H.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F. I.

Fietze, I.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, J. T.

P. K. McFawn, L. Forkert, and J. T. Fisher, "A new method to perform quantitative measurement of bronchoscopic images," Eur. Respir. J. 18, 817-826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forkert, L.

P. K. McFawn, L. Forkert, and J. T. Fisher, "A new method to perform quantitative measurement of bronchoscopic images," Eur. Respir. J. 18, 817-826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Forte, V.

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francis, P. W.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

Gelikonov, V. M.

Gierada, D. S.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladkova, N. D.

Grzanka, P.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, D.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, D. R.

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jowett, N.

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuranov, R. V.

Kuznetzova, I. A.

Lam, S.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leawoods, J. C.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefrak, S. S.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leigh, M. S.

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebetruth, J.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maddison, K. J.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, U.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masters, I. B.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, J. R.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McFawn, P. K.

P. K. McFawn, L. Forkert, and J. T. Fisher, "A new method to perform quantitative measurement of bronchoscopic images," Eur. Respir. J. 18, 817-826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. A.

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

McWilliams, A. M.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milliken, J.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mina-Araghi, R.

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paduch, A.

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parmer, J.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philippe, D. L.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Quiney, B.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogalla, P.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruckert, Y.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saltzman, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, I. D. Walton, A. V. Zvyagin, S. A. Alexandrov, S. Schwer, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "In vivo size and shape measurement of the human upper airway using endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 1817-1826 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasse, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwer, S.

Sergeev, A. M.

Shakhov, A. V.

Shakhova, N. M.

Sin, D. D.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sladek, K.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Snopova, L. B.

Soja, J.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Spiteri, M. A.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephens, M.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukstanskii, A. L.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szczeklik, A.

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Terent'eva, A. B.

van Pittius, D. G.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. H.

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walton, I. D.

Ware, R. S.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weersink, R. A.

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wernecke, K. D.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whiteman, S. C.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witt, C.

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wootton, R.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xing, L.

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskiy, D. A.

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zagainova, E. V.

Zhang, J.

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, P. V.

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zvyagin, A. V.

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care (2)

J. J. Armstrong, M. S. Leigh, D. D. Sampson, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Quantitative upper airway imaging with anatomic optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 173, 226-323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. O. Coxson, B. Quiney, D. D. Sin, L. Xing, A. M. McWilliams, J. R. Mayo, and S. Lam, "Airway wall thickness assessed using computed tomography and optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care 177, 1201-1206 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1)

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study," Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 157, 1640-1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. (1)

N. Jowett, R. A. Weersink, K. Zhang, P. Campisi, and V. Forte, "Airway luminal diameter and shape measurement by means of an intraluminal fiberoptic probe: a bench model," Arch. Otolaryngol. 134, 637-642 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

S. C. Whiteman, Y. Yang, D. G. van Pittius, M. Stephens, J. Parmer, and M. A. Spiteri, "Optical coherence tomography: real-time imaging of bronchial airways microstructure and detection of inflammatory/neoplastic morphologic changes," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 813-818 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Respir. J. (2)

W. V. Dorffel, I. Fietze, D. Hentschel, J. Liebetruth, Y. Ruckert, P. Rogalla, K. D. Wernecke, G. Baumann, and C. Witt, "A new bronchoscopic method to measure airway size," Eur. Respir. J. 14, 783-788 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. McFawn, L. Forkert, and J. T. Fisher, "A new method to perform quantitative measurement of bronchoscopic images," Eur. Respir. J. 18, 817-826 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. S. Leigh, J. J. Armstrong, A. Paduch, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography for long-term, portable, quantitative endoscopy," IEEE Trans Biomed. Eng. 55, 1438-1446 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aerosol Med. (1)

D. L. Bailey, "Imaging the airways in 2006," J. Aerosol Med. 19, 1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Su, J. Zhang, L. Yu, H. G. Colt, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sleep Res. (1)

J. H. Walsh, M. S. Leigh, A. Paduch, K. J. Maddison, D. L. Philippe, J. J. Armstrong, D. D. Sampson, D. R. Hillman, and P. R. Eastwood, "Evaluation of pharyngeal shape and size using anatomical optical coherence tomography in individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnoea," J. Sleep Res. 17, 230-238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1)

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura," J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129, 615-622 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D. A. Yablonskiy, A. L. Sukstanskii, J. C. Leawoods, D. S. Gierada, G. L. Bretthorst, S. S. Lefrak, J. D. Cooper, and M. S. Conradi, "Quantitative in vivo assessment of lung microstructure at the alveolar level with hyperpolarized He-3 diffusion MRI," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 3111-3116 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. J. Armstrong, S. Becker, R. A. McLaughlin, M. S. Leigh, J. H. Walsh, D. R. Hillman, P. R. Eastwood, and D. D. Sampson, "Anatomical optical coherence tomography - a safe and effective tool for quantitative long-term monitoring of upper airway size and shape," Proc. SPIE 6842, 68421N (2008).

Respir. Res. (1)

I. B. Masters, M. M. Eastburn, P. W. Francis, R. Wootton, P. V. Zimmerman, R. S. Ware, and A. B. Chang, "Quantification of the magnification and distortion effects of a pediatric flexible video-bronchoscope," Respir. Res. 6, 14-16 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Respiration (2)

P. Czaja, J. Soja, P. Grzanka, A. Cmiel, A. Szczeklik, and K. Sladek, "Assessment of airway caliber in quantitative videobronchoscopy," Respiration 74, 432-438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Han, N. H. El-Abbadi, N. Hanna, U. Mahmood, R. Mina-Araghi, W. Jung, Z. Chen, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, "Evaluation of tracheal imaging by optical coherence tomography," Respiration 72, 537-541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

aOCT schematic. PM: phase modulator; PC: polarization controller; BBS: broadband source.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Patient A. Chest CT depicting the lower airway (View 1). Top row (L-R): 3D view; Axial slice at the level of the main carina. Middle row (L-R): Coronal view; Sagittal view. Bottom row (L-R): Lightbox view; Oblique view measuring airway diameter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Patient A. aOCT of trachea, through the left main bronchus and into the left lower lobe. (View 2). Top row (L-R): 3D view; Axial view showing diameters of the proximal left main bronchus; Bottom row (L-R): Coronal view; Sagittal view. The catheter, within which the probe is housed, is visible within the airway lumen.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Patient A. aOCT scan through mid-trachea, proximal trachea and the larynx (View 3). Top row (L-R): 3D view; Axial view showing airway dimensions in proximal trachea. Bottom row (L-R): Coronal view; Sagittal view. The catheter is visible within the airway lumen.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Patient B. Movement of the distal trachea during a respiratory cycle. A= late expiration; B= mid inspiration; C= late inspiration. Catheter containing the probe s visible within the airway lumen.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Patient B. Movement of the right main bronchus during a respiratory cycle. A= late expiration; B= mid inspiration; C= late inspiration. Catheter containing the probe is visible within the airway lumen.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Patient B. Movement of the right middle lobe during a respiratory cycle. A= late expiration; B= mid inspiration; C= late inspiration. Catheter containing the probe is visible within the airway lumen.

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