Abstract

We demonstrate trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator integrated with a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. The endo-rectal NIR applicator incorporated a design presented in our previously reported work. A continuous-wave NIR optical tomography system is combined with a commercial US scanner to form the dual-modality imager. Sagittal trans-rectal imaging is performed concurrently by endo-rectal NIR and TRUS. The TRUS ensures accurate positioning of the NIR applicator as well as guides NIR image reconstruction using the spatial prior of the target. The use of a condom, which is standard for TRUS, is found to have minimal effect on trans-rectal NIR imaging. Tests on avian tissues validates that NIR imaging can recover the absorption contrast of a target, and its accuracy is improved when the TRUS spatial prior is incorporated. Trans-rectal NIR/US imaging of a healthy canine prostate in situ is reported.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Porter, "Does the number of prostate biopsies performed affect the nature of the cancer identified?" Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol. 4, 132-133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao and B. W. Pogue, "Rapid near-infrared tomography for hemodynamic imaging using a low coherence wideband light source", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014016 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (5)

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-58 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, Q. Zhu, "Estimation of chest-wall-induced diffused wave distortion with the assistance of ultrasound," Appl. Opt. 44, 4255-64 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

2001 (3)

G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol. Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia and H. Jiang, "Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements," Appl. Opt. 39, 5256-5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

S. L. Jacques and M. Motamedi, "Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer," Proc. SPIE 2395, 111-118 (1995).

R. Aronson, "Boundary conditions for diffusion of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 12, 2532-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
[PubMed]

Alcouffe, R. E.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ali, J. H.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Anderson, T.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfield, M. R.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronson, R.

R. Aronson, "Boundary conditions for diffusion of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 12, 2532-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S.

S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baeurle, L.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bannowsky, A.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, A. H.

Boas, D. A.

Brukilacchio, T. J.

Bunting, C. F.

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

Busch, T.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butler, E. R.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cahn, J.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, P. R.

G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol. Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A. E.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-58 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
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M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
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Chapman, J. D.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaves, T.

Chen, N.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, R.

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chorlton, M.

Cope, M.

S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
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B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cronin, E. B.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Currier, A. A.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Custo, A.

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

Delpy, D.

S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DeMichele, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eupic, H.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, T. C.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fenning, M. C.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fishkin, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishkin, O.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flier, G.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaida, G.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatstein, E.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grabski, B.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosicka-Koptyra, M.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, M.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
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G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol. Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
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Guven, M.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-58 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, R. C.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
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Hielscher, A. H.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-302 (1998).
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Hillman, E. M.

Holboke, M. J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Intes, X.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-58 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques and M. Motamedi, "Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer," Proc. SPIE 2395, 111-118 (1995).

Jess, H.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
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N. Iftimia and H. Jiang, "Quantitative optical image reconstruction of turbid media by use of direct-current measurements," Appl. Opt. 39, 5256-5261 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kidney, D.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilmer, M. E.

Konecky, S. D.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, B.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopans, D. B.

Kraus, O.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruslin, B.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, A.

Li, C.

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liengsawangwong, R.

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loch, A. C.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loch, T.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malkowicz, S. B.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mantulin, W. W.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAdams, M. S.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McBride, T. O.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

McPhee, M. S.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, J.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E. L.

Moesta, K. T.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montironi, R.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
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Montorsi, F.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R. H.

Motamedi, M.

S. L. Jacques and M. Motamedi, "Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer," Proc. SPIE 2395, 111-118 (1995).

Musgrove, C. H.

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterberg, U. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Paul, U.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Pham, D.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J. B.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piao, D.

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

D. Piao and B. W. Pogue, "Rapid near-infrared tomography for hemodynamic imaging using a low coherence wideband light source", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014016 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao, H. Xie. W. Zhang, J. S. Kransinski, G. Zhang, H. Dehghani, and B. W. Pogue, "Endoscopic, rapid near-infrared optical tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2876-2878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao and B. W. Pogue, "Rapid near-infrared tomography for hemodynamic imaging using a low coherence wideband light source", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014016 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Porter, C. R.

C. R. Porter, "Does the number of prostate biopsies performed affect the nature of the cancer identified?" Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol. 4, 132-133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rigatti, P.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardino, P. T.

K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
[PubMed]

Scattoni, V.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlag, P. M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz-Krause, O.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulman, C.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeber, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinohara, K.

K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
[PubMed]

Sobel, E.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spajic, B.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stimac, G.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stott, J.

Stripp, D.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L. O.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svensson, T.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tochner, Z.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomas, D.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, T. T.

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, J. D.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vine, H. S.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. B.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T. O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wells, W. M.

Wheeler, T. M.

K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
[PubMed]

Whittington, R.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

Xie, H.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, Q. Zhu, "Estimation of chest-wall-induced diffused wave distortion with the assistance of ultrasound," Appl. Opt. 44, 4255-64 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

Yazici, B.

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-58 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zevallos, M.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhu, Q.

C. Xu, Q. Zhu, "Estimation of chest-wall-induced diffused wave distortion with the assistance of ultrasound," Appl. Opt. 44, 4255-64 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T. C.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zlotta, A.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Breast Cancer Res. (1)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epidemiol. Rev. (1)

G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol. Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Urol. (1)

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, "A review of the optical properties of biological tissues," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166-2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed Opt. (1)

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed Opt. 5,237-247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Piao and B. W. Pogue, "Rapid near-infrared tomography for hemodynamic imaging using a low coherence wideband light source", J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014016 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, Q. Zhang, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis: initial results in the finger joints," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (2)

R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, B. J. Tromberg, "Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 2727-41 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Aronson, "Boundary conditions for diffusion of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 12, 2532-9 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Urol. (1)

K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
[PubMed]

Med Phys. (1)

B. J. Tromberg, B. W. Pogue, K. D. Paulsen, A. G. Yodh, D. A. Boas, and A. E. Cerussi, "Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management," Med Phys. 35, 2443-51 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys. (2)

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol. (1)

C. R. Porter, "Does the number of prostate biopsies performed affect the nature of the cancer identified?" Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol. 4, 132-133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

G. Xu, D. Piao, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, and H. Dehghani, "Trans-rectal ultrasound coupled trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate Part I: Simulations," Opt. Express 16, 17494-17514 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (1)

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (2)

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

S. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-1560 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Guven, B. Yazici, X. Intes, and B. Chance, "Diffuse optical tomography with a priori anatomical information," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2837-58 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, and R. L. Barbour, "Comparison of finite-difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285-302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The combined trans-rectal NIR/US probe: (a) top-view; (b) top-view dimension; (c) front-view; (d) side-view; (e) side-view dimension; (f) side and top views of the NIR/US alignment method; (g) rear-view of the NIR/US alignment method.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micro-optical configurations: (a) source channel; (b) detector channel. Unit: mm

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The combined trans-rectal NIR/US system: (a) System diagram; (b) Photo of the system on a custom designed three-layer cart.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Source coupling sequence with the Gaussian-spectrum (a), and the received signal dynamic range compared with the case when source channels have even intensities (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Data Calibration: (a) raw CCD data; (b) linear fitting of the measurement data based on the semi-infinite model; (c) calibrated data for the signal corresponding to the 49 source-detector pairs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

NIR Imaging geometry: (a) NIR arrays are parallel and symmetric to the TRUS sagittal plane; (b) the positions of NIR channels with respect to the TRUS image; (c) mesh for NIR image reconstruction generated by use of TRUS image; (d) absorption image reconstructed from a simulation data for an absorbing target.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Solid tissue phantom (a) and experimental setup (b)

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

NlR imaging of a solid tissue phantom having an absorption coefficient of 0.0056mm-1. The reconstructed background absorption coefficients are 0.0019mm-1 in (a), (b), (d), (e), and 0.0020 mm-1 in (c), (f).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

TRUS guided NIR image reconstruction for solid phantom in homogenous medium

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Imaging of multiple targets: (a) NIR-only reconstruction when the target depth is 17.5mm, the targets can be barely separated; (b) NIR-only reconstruction when the target depth is 22.5mm, the targets cannot be separated; (c) region based reconstruction when the target depth is 22.5mm.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Test of condom effect on the NIR imaging: (a) reconstructed absorption coefficients for all cases listed in Table 4, and The red dashed line shows the true value; (b) data points in (a) specific to target depths and longitudinal locations.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Avian tissue imaging: (a) front view; (b) top view; (c) no inclusion; (d) inclusion is at 20mm; (e) 35mm; (f) 58mm, longitudinally, respectively.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Internal imaging of avian tissue embedded with a piece of liver. (a) Whole chicken sample; (b) US image of the embedded liver tissue; (c) NIR image reconstructed without US prior; (d) NIR image reconstructed assuming a circular target; (e) NIR image reconstructed by adding the boundary profile of the background tissue; (f) NIR image reconstructed by adding the actual contour of the target.

Fig.14. .
Fig.14. .

rans-rectal NIR/US imaging of in vitro canine prostate with exogenous tissue contrast.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Imaging of a tissue mass that is ambiguous to TRUS but sensitive to NIR.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured coupling efficiency of the source/detector fiber channels

Tables Icon

Table 2. NIR image reconstruction guided by TRUS- prior

Tables Icon

Table 3. Reconstructed absorption coefficients of the two targets in Fig. 12

Tables Icon

Table 4. Absorption coefficient reconstructed with the use of condom on the NIR probe (mm-1)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Reconstructed absorption value of in vitro canine prostate imaging

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

· D ( r ) U ( r ) µ a ( r ) · U ( r ) = S ( r )
U ( ρ ) = S 4 π D ρ 2 [ 4 ( µ a D ) 1 2 ( z b 2 + z b / µ s ' ) ] · exp [ ( µ a D ) 1 2 ρ ]
· D ( r ) U ( r , ω ) ( µ a ( r ) + i ω c ) · U ( r , ω ) = S ( r , ω )
x k + 1 = x k + α · [ J T ( x k ) J ( x k ) + λ I ] 1 J T ( x k ) Δ ν ( x k )

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