Abstract

We investigate the feasibility of trans-rectal optical tomography of the prostate using an endo-rectal near-infrared (NIR) applicator that is to be integrated with a trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe. Integration with TRUS ensures accurate endo-rectal positioning of the NIR applicator and the utility of using TRUS spatial prior information to guide NIR image reconstruction. The prostate NIR image reconstruction is challenging even with the use of spatial prior owing to the anatomic complexity of the imaging domain. A hierarchical reconstruction algorithm is developed that implements cascaded initial-guesses for nested domains. This hierarchical image reconstruction method is then applied to evaluating a number of NIR applicator designs for integration with a sagittal TRUS transducer. A NIR applicator configuration feasible for instrumentation development is proposed that contains one linear array of optodes on each lateral side of the sagittal TRUS transducer. The performance of this NIR applicator is characterized for the recovery of single tumor mimicking lesion as well as dual targets in the prostate. The results suggest a strong feasibility of transrectal prostate imaging by use of the endo-rectal NIR/US probe.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (9)

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Porter, "Does the number of prostate biopsies performed affect the nature of the cancer identified?" Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol. 4, 132-133 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and D. Piao, "Computational aspects of endoscopic near-infrared optical tomography: initial investigations," Proc. SPIE 6343, 643409 (2007)

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay,  et al. "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bill-Axelson, L. Holmberg, M. Ruutu,  et al. "Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1977-1984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Shen, Y. Zhan, and C. Davatzikos, "Segmentation of prostate boundaries from ultrasound images using statistical shape model," IEEE Tran. Med. Imaging 22, 539-55 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary condition and geometry analysis for finite-element image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

H. Liu, Y. Song, K. L. Worden, X. Jiang, A. Constantinescu, and R. P. Mason, "Noninvasive investigation of blood oxygenation dynamics of tumors by near-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 5231-43 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, M. Vauhkonen, J. P. Kaipio, and S. R. Arridge, "Recovery of piecewise constant coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Opt. Express 7, 468-480 (2000).
[PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Simultaneous reconstruction of internal tissue region boundaries and coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3267-3284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhu, T. Durduran, V. Ntziachristos, M. Holboke, and A. G. Yodh, "Imager that combines near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 24, 1050-1052 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Polascik, J. E. Oesterling, and A. W. Partin, "Prostate specific antigen: a decade of discovery--what we have learned and where we are going," J. Urol. 162, 293-306 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

X. Yu, G. Chen, and S. Cheng, "Dynamic learning rate optimization of the backpropagation algorithm," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 6, 669-677 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and M. Motamedi, "Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer," Proc. SPIE 2395, 111-118 (1995).

1994 (1)

G. J. Miller and J. M. Cygan, "Morphology of prostate cancer: the effects of multifocality on histological grade, tumor volume and capsule penetration," J. Urol. 152(5 Pt 2), 1709-13 (1994).
[PubMed]

1993 (3)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Application of the finite-element method for the forward and inverse models in optical tomography," J. Math. Imag. Vision 3, 263-283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Bigler, R. E. Deering, and M. K. Brawer, "Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue," Hum. Pathol. 24, 220-226 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
[PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ali, J. H.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Anderson, T.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfield, M. R.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, O. Dorn, A. Zacharopoulos, and V. Kolehmainen, "Reconstructing absorption and diffusion shape profiles in optical tomography using a level set technique," Opt. Lett. 31, 471-473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, M. Vauhkonen, J. P. Kaipio, and S. R. Arridge, "Recovery of piecewise constant coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Opt. Express 7, 468-480 (2000).
[PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Simultaneous reconstruction of internal tissue region boundaries and coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3267-3284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Application of the finite-element method for the forward and inverse models in optical tomography," J. Math. Imag. Vision 3, 263-283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baeurle, L.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bannowsky, A.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigler, S. A.

S. A. Bigler, R. E. Deering, and M. K. Brawer, "Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue," Hum. Pathol. 24, 220-226 (1993).
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Bill-Axelson, A.

A. Bill-Axelson, L. Holmberg, M. Ruutu,  et al. "Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1977-1984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brawer, M. K.

S. A. Bigler, R. E. Deering, and M. K. Brawer, "Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue," Hum. Pathol. 24, 220-226 (1993).
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Bunting, C. F.

C. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and D. Piao, "Computational aspects of endoscopic near-infrared optical tomography: initial investigations," Proc. SPIE 6343, 643409 (2007)

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

Butler, E. R.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
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Cahn, J.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M.

T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
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Carroll, P. R.

G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, D. W.

C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
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Chance, B.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
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M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
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Chapman, J. D.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
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Chen, G.

X. Yu, G. Chen, and S. Cheng, "Dynamic learning rate optimization of the backpropagation algorithm," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 6, 669-677 (1995).
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Chen, N.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
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Cheng, S.

X. Yu, G. Chen, and S. Cheng, "Dynamic learning rate optimization of the backpropagation algorithm," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 6, 669-677 (1995).
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Cheung, R.

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
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Choe, R.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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Choi, H.

C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
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Constantinescu, A.

Coquoz, J.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
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Corlu, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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Cronin, E. B.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Currier, A. A.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
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G. J. Miller and J. M. Cygan, "Morphology of prostate cancer: the effects of multifocality on histological grade, tumor volume and capsule penetration," J. Urol. 152(5 Pt 2), 1709-13 (1994).
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Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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D. Shen, Y. Zhan, and C. Davatzikos, "Segmentation of prostate boundaries from ultrasound images using statistical shape model," IEEE Tran. Med. Imaging 22, 539-55 (2003).
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Deering, R. E.

S. A. Bigler, R. E. Deering, and M. K. Brawer, "Comparison of microscopic vascularity in benign and malignant prostate tissue," Hum. Pathol. 24, 220-226 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

C. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and D. Piao, "Computational aspects of endoscopic near-infrared optical tomography: initial investigations," Proc. SPIE 6343, 643409 (2007)

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

P. K. Yalavarthy, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Critical computational aspects of near infrared circular tomographic imaging: Analysis of measurement number, mesh resolution and reconstruction basis," Opt. Express 14, 6113-6127 (2006).
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S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delpy, D. T.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, "Application of the finite-element method for the forward and inverse models in optical tomography," J. Math. Imag. Vision 3, 263-283 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DeMichele, A.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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Dimofte, A.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay,  et al. "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, O.

Downs, J.

T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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Q. Zhu, T. Durduran, V. Ntziachristos, M. Holboke, and A. G. Yodh, "Imager that combines near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 24, 1050-1052 (1999).
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Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
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Eisenberger, M. A.

C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
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Eupic, H.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
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Fantini, S.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenning, M. C.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay,  et al. "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fishkin, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishkin, O.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flier, G.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaida, G.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geimer, S.

Grabski, B.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosicka-Koptyra, M.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, M.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grossfeld, G. D.

G. D. Grossfeld and P. R. Carroll, "Prostate cancer early detection: a clinical perspective," Epidemiol Rev. 23, 173-80 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemenez, M.

T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holboke, M.

Holboke, M. J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmberg, L.

A. Bill-Axelson, L. Holmberg, M. Ruutu,  et al. "Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1977-1984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
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Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques and M. Motamedi, "Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer," Proc. SPIE 2395, 111-118 (1995).

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

Jess, H.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary condition and geometry analysis for finite-element image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
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Jiang, X.

Kaipio, J. P.

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Simultaneous reconstruction of internal tissue region boundaries and coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3267-3284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, M. Vauhkonen, J. P. Kaipio, and S. R. Arridge, "Recovery of piecewise constant coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Opt. Express 7, 468-480 (2000).
[PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaschke, M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kidney, D.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolehmainen, V.

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, O. Dorn, A. Zacharopoulos, and V. Kolehmainen, "Reconstructing absorption and diffusion shape profiles in optical tomography using a level set technique," Opt. Lett. 31, 471-473 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, M. Vauhkonen, J. P. Kaipio, and S. R. Arridge, "Recovery of piecewise constant coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Opt. Express 7, 468-480 (2000).
[PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Simultaneous reconstruction of internal tissue region boundaries and coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3267-3284 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
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Konecky, S. D.

R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
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Kraus, O.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
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B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
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R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
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M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
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C. Li, R. Liengsawangwong, H. Choi, and R. Cheung, "Using a priori structural information from magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the feasibility of prostate diffuse optical tomography and spectroscopy: a simulation study," Med. Phys. 34, 266-274 (2007).
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V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
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Loch, A. C.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
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Loch, T.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
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M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
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McBride, T. O.

McBride, T.O.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
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M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
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M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
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V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
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Montorsi, F.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
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S. L. Jacques and M. Motamedi, "Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer," Proc. SPIE 2395, 111-118 (1995).

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A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

Musgrove, C.

C. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and D. Piao, "Computational aspects of endoscopic near-infrared optical tomography: initial investigations," Proc. SPIE 6343, 643409 (2007)

Musgrove, C. H.

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

Nolley, R.

T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
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V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, "Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer," Breast Cancer Res. 3, 41-46 (2001).
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T. J. Polascik, J. E. Oesterling, and A. W. Partin, "Prostate specific antigen: a decade of discovery--what we have learned and where we are going," J. Urol. 162, 293-306 (1999).
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Osterberg, U. L.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary condition and geometry analysis for finite-element image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
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Osterman, K. S.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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Partin, A. W.

T. J. Polascik, J. E. Oesterling, and A. W. Partin, "Prostate specific antigen: a decade of discovery--what we have learned and where we are going," J. Urol. 162, 293-306 (1999).
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C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
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Paul, U.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
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Paulsen, K. D.

P. K. Yalavarthy, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Critical computational aspects of near infrared circular tomographic imaging: Analysis of measurement number, mesh resolution and reconstruction basis," Opt. Express 14, 6113-6127 (2006).
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S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary condition and geometry analysis for finite-element image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Pearson, J. D.

C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
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Pham, D.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J. B.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piao, D.

C. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and D. Piao, "Computational aspects of endoscopic near-infrared optical tomography: initial investigations," Proc. SPIE 6343, 643409 (2007)

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

Pogue, B. W.

C. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and D. Piao, "Computational aspects of endoscopic near-infrared optical tomography: initial investigations," Proc. SPIE 6343, 643409 (2007)

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

P. K. Yalavarthy, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and K. D. Paulsen, "Critical computational aspects of near infrared circular tomographic imaging: Analysis of measurement number, mesh resolution and reconstruction basis," Opt. Express 14, 6113-6127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Geimer, T. O. McBride, S. Jiang, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen, "Three-dimensional simulation of near-infrared diffusion in tissue: boundary condition and geometry analysis for finite-element image reconstruction," Appl. Opt. 40, 588-600 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
[PubMed]

Polascik, T. J.

T. J. Polascik, J. E. Oesterling, and A. W. Partin, "Prostate specific antigen: a decade of discovery--what we have learned and where we are going," J. Urol. 162, 293-306 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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C. R. Porter, "Does the number of prostate biopsies performed affect the nature of the cancer identified?" Nat. Clin. Pract. Urol. 4, 132-133 (2007).
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Pound, C. R.

C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigatti, P.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
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R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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A. Bill-Axelson, L. Holmberg, M. Ruutu,  et al. "Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer," N. Engl. J. Med. 352, 1977-1984 (2005).
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K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
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Scattoni, V.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
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Schlag, P. M.

M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz-Krause, O.

A. C. Loch, A. Bannowsky, L. Baeurle, B. Grabski, B. König, G. Flier, O. Schmitz-Krause, U. Paul, and T. Loch, "Technical and anatomical essentials for transrectal ultrasound of the prostate," World J. Urol. 25, 361-366 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulman, C.

V. Scattoni, A. Zlotta, R. Montironi, C. Schulman, P. Rigatti, and F. Montorsi, "Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature," Eur. Urol. 52,1309-1322 (2007).
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M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, O. Dorn, A. Zacharopoulos, and V. Kolehmainen, "Reconstructing absorption and diffusion shape profiles in optical tomography using a level set technique," Opt. Lett. 31, 471-473 (2006).
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M. A. Franceschini, K. T. Moesta, S. Fantini, G. Gaida, E. Gratton, H. Jess, W. W. Mantulin, M. Seeber, P. M. Schlag, and M. Kaschke, "Frequency-domain techniques enhance optical mammography: initial clinical results," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6468-6473 (1997).
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Shah, N.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
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D. Shen, Y. Zhan, and C. Davatzikos, "Segmentation of prostate boundaries from ultrasound images using statistical shape model," IEEE Tran. Med. Imaging 22, 539-55 (2003).
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K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
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Siegel, R.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

Song, X.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Spajic, B.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, H. Dehghani, S. Jiang, X. Song, and K. D. Paulsen, "Improved quantification of small objects in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1161-1171 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamey, T. A.

T. A. Stamey, M. Caldwell, J. E. McNeal, R. Nolley, M. Hemenez, and J. Downs, "The prostate specific antigen era in the United States is over for prostate cancer: what happened in the last 20 years?," J. Urol. 172, 1297-1301 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stimac, G.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
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T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
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T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, "In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014022 (2007).
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Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

Tomas, D.

B. Spajic, H. Eupic, D. Tomas, G. Stimac, B. Kruslin, and O. Kraus, "The incidence of hyperechoic prostate cancer in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy specimens," Urology 70, 734-737 (2007).
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Tromberg, B.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject," J. Biomed. Opt. 5:237-47 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
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Vauhkonen, M.

V. Kolehmainen, M. Vauhkonen, J. P. Kaipio, and S. R. Arridge, "Recovery of piecewise constant coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Opt. Express 7, 468-480 (2000).
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V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Simultaneous reconstruction of internal tissue region boundaries and coefficients in optical diffusion tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 3267-3284 (2000).
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V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vemulapalli, S. N.

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

Venugopalan, J. D.

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, P. C.

C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, "Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy," JAMA.  281, 1591-1597 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. B.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
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Ward, E.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

Wells, W. A.

B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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K. Shinohara, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, "The appearance of prostate cancer on transrectal ultrasonography: correlation of imaging and pathological examinations," J. Urol. 142, 76-82 (1989).
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Xu, C.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
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Xu, J.

A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

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R. Choe, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, S. D. Konecky, M. Grosicka-Koptyra, S. R. Arridge, B. J. Czerniecki, D. L. Fraker, A. DeMichele, B. Chance, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a case study with comparison to MRI," Med. Phys. 32, 1128-1139 (2005).
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D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

Zhang, W.

D. Piao, H. Xie, W. Zhang, G. Zhang, C. H. Musgrove, C. F. Bunting, H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, and S. N. Vemulapalli, "Near-infrared optical tomography: endoscopic imaging approach," Proc. SPIE 6431, 643103 (2007).

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu, E. B. Cronin, A. A. Currier, H. S. Vine, M. Huang, N. Chen, and C. Xu, "Benign versus malignant breast masses: optical differentiation with US-guided optical imaging reconstruction," Radiology 237, 57-66 (2005).
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Q. Zhu, T. Durduran, V. Ntziachristos, M. Holboke, and A. G. Yodh, "Imager that combines near-infrared diffusive light and ultrasound," Opt. Lett. 24, 1050-1052 (1999).
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T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay,  et al. "Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy," Photochem. Photobiol. 81, 96-105 (2005).
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A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2007," CA Cancer J. Clin. 57, 43-66 (2007).

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X. Yu, G. Chen, and S. Cheng, "Dynamic learning rate optimization of the backpropagation algorithm," IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 6, 669-677 (1995).
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V. Kolehmainen, S. R. Arridge, W. R. B. Lionheart, M. Vauhkonen, and J. P. Kaipio, "Recovery of region boundaries of piecewise constant coefficients of an elliptic PDE from boundary data," Inverse Probl. 15, 1375-1391 (1999).
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Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (1)

B. Tromberg, J. Coquoz, O. Fishkin, J. B. Pham, T. Anderson, E. R. Butler, J. Cahn, M. Gross, J. D. Venugopalan, and D. Pham, "Non-invasive measurements of breast tissue optical properties using frequency-domain photon migration," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 352, 661-668 (1997).
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M. R. Arnfield, J. D. Chapman, J. Tulip, M. C. Fenning, and M. S. McPhee, "Optical properties of experimental prostate tumors in vivo," Photochem. Photobiol. 57, 306-311 (1993).
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B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, T.O. McBride, W. A. Wells, K. S. Osterman, U. L. Osterberg, and K. D. Paulsen," Quantitative hemoglobin tomography with diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy: pilot results in the breast," Radiology 218, 261-266 (2001).
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J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, "Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues," Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3, 491-497 (2004).
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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Photograph of a bi-plane TRUS transducer. (b) Configuration of an NIR array feasible for coupling with sagittal TRUS. (c) The NIR imaging geometry for the one depicted in (b). (d) Illustration of a trans-rectal probe that integrates NIR and US synergistically.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 3ds-MAX Interface, (b) Mesh-to-Solid Interface

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

FEM mesh generated based on approaches in Fig. 2. [Unit: mm].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sensitivity profile. (a) Mid-sagittal plane, longitudinal sensitivity; (b) mid-transverse plane, lateral sensitivity; (c) mid-saggital plane, depth sensitivity. The marks on abscissa or the origin show the positions of optodes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

NIR-only element-based reconstruction of a tumor target in various longitudinal locations. Row 1: target image for calculating the forward data; Row 2: Images reconstructed without any spatial prior. (a): µa images; (b): µ s images. [Unit: mm-1]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Local-minimum issue in reconstruction. The forward calculation is based on Fig. 3(a) with assumption of homogeneous imaging volume. The projection error is calculated by using reduced scattering coefficient of the true value (0.008mm-1), and using an absorption coefficient value from 0 to 0.15mm-1 at a step of 0.002mm-1, with respect to the forward data. Other than the global minimum, three local minimums can be observed where the iteration can stop incorrectly. This is the effect of varying only one parameter. More local minimums may occur when reconstructing more parameters.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The 3-step hierarchical reconstruction method (a) Step 1-one ROI for the entire volume; (b) step 2-three ROIs representing rectum wall, peri-prostate tissue, prostate; (c) step 3-four ROIs representing rectum wall, peri-prostate tissue, prostate, tumor; (d) change of the overall projection error, where the dash lines separate the converging of the three steps in (a)-(c); (e) block chart of the hierarchical initial guess assignment. [Unit in (a)---(c): mm-1]

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The FEM mesh generated by following the geometry in NIR/MRI paper: (a) the geometry of the optodes, where the dash rectangle delineates the dimension of the NIR array that will be evaluated later for integration with US; (b) the 3-d view of the optodes and the imaging volume; (c) FEM containing the prostate and the tumor. [Unit: mm]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Reconstructed images for a target with absorption contrast: (a) negative contrast (b) positive contrast. Top row: target setting; Bottom row: reconstructed image. [Unit: mm-1]

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

NIR array designs. The dimension of the sagittal TRUS is shown in (a). The number of the Fig. caption denotes the number of opdotes on each lateral side of the TRUS as is depicted in (a). “sd” denotes one line of source and one line of detector; “ssdd” denotes two lines of source and two lines of detector; “sdsd” denotes mixed source/detector in one line; “sym” denotes symmetric distribution of the optodes with respect to the sagittal TRUS. [Unit: mm]

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Sensitivity comparison: (a) longitudinal direction, (b) lateral direction, (c) depth direction. The upper thicker line corresponds to the configuration (h) in Fig. 10, and the lower thicker line corresponds to the desired configuration (a) in Fig. 10.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of two geometries for a target varying in longitudinal location in the middle-sagittal plane: (a) illustration of the target location change [Unit: mm-1]; (b) comparison of absorption coefficient reconstruction; (c) comparison of reduced scattering coefficient reconstruction

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Comparison of two geometries for a target varying in depth in the middle-sagittal plane: (a) illustration of the target location change [Unit: mm-1]; (b) comparison of absorption coefficient reconstruction; (c) comparison of reduced scattering coefficient reconstruction

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Comparison of two geometries for a target varying in size in the middle-sagittal plane: (a) illustration of the target size change [Unit: mm-1]; (b) comparison of absorption coefficient reconstruction; (c) comparison of reduced scattering coefficient reconstruction

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Two suspicious regions at the same depth [Units: mm and mm-1]

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Two targets at different depths: negative contrast cases [Unit: mm and mm-1]

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Two targets at different depths: positive contrast cases [Unit: mm and mm-1]

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of simultaneously updating the 4 ROIs from the same initial guess

Tables Icon

Table 2. Reconstruction of a prostate tumor of negative contrast with respect to the prostate

Tables Icon

Table 3. Reconstruction of a prostate tumor of positive contrast with respect to the prostate

Tables Icon

Table 4. Comparison of reconstructed optical properties (mm-1) in Fig. 15

Tables Icon

Table 5. Comparison of reconstructed optical properties (mm-1) in Fig. 16

Tables Icon

Table 6. Comparison of reconstructed optical properties (mm-1) in Fig. 17

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

· D ( r ) U ( r , ω ) ( μ a + i ω c ) U ( r , ω ) = S ( r , ω )
U ( r 0 , ω ) + 2 D A n ̂ 0 U ( r 0 , ω ) = 0
J = [ ln I 11 μ a _ rect ln I 11 μ a _ peri ln I 11 μ a _ pros ln I 11 μ a _ lesi ln I 11 μ s _ rect ln I 11 μ s _ peri ln I 11 μ s _ pros ln I 11 μ s _ lesi ln I 12 μ a _ rect ln I 77 μ a _ rect ln I 77 μ a _ lesi ln I 77 μ s _ rect ln I 77 μ s _ lesi ϕ 11 μ a _ rect ϕ 11 μ a _ peri ϕ 11 μ a _ pros ϕ 11 μ a _ lesi ϕ 11 μ s _ rect ϕ 11 μ s _ lesi ϕ 12 μ a _ rect ϕ 77 μ a _ rect ϕ 77 μ a _ lesi ϕ 77 μ s _ rect ϕ 77 μ s _ lesi ]
x k + 1 = x k + α · [ J T ( x k ) J ( x k ) + λ I ] 1 J T ( x k ) Δ v ( x k )

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