Abstract

Although high optical illumination power is favored in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for better signal-to-noise ratio, optical power is often limited by a damaged threshold for biomedical living tissues and autocorrelation signals observed in tomograms. In order to improve signal sensitivity without increasing the optical illumination power, a spectrally sampled multi-wavelength light source is proposed for the OCT system. A fiber Sagnac comb filter was used to spectrally sample the output of a continuous spectral light source. Point spread function analysis shows that the spectrally sampled OCT has an almost 50% dynamic range improvement in comparison with a conventional continuous spectral light source OCT for the same average optical power of 6 mW.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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2008

2007

S. W. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. M. Kim, "External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. S. Kim, B. Choi, J. S. Nelson, Q. Li, P. Z. Dashti, and H. P. Lee, "Compensation of polarization-dependent loss in transmission fiber gratings by use of a Sagnac loop interferometer," Opt. Lett. 30, 20-22 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

A. Yu and A. S. Siddiqui, "Optical modulators using fibre optic Sagnac interferometers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 1-7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 4163-4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Choi, B.

Choma, M. A.

Dashti, P. Z.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Izatt, J.

Jin, C. S.

Kaluzny, J. J.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. M.

S. W. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. M. Kim, "External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

Kowalczyk, A.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 4163-4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le, T.

Lee, H. P.

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. M. Kim, "External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Li, Q.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddiqui, A. S.

A. Yu and A. S. Siddiqui, "Optical modulators using fibre optic Sagnac interferometers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 1-7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 4163-4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szkulmowski, M.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 4163-4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Wojtkowski, M.

T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, R. Huber, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved spectral optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb," Opt. Express 16, 4163-4176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yu, A.

A. Yu and A. S. Siddiqui, "Optical modulators using fibre optic Sagnac interferometers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 1-7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Opt.

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

A. Yu and A. S. Siddiqui, "Optical modulators using fibre optic Sagnac interferometers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 141, 1-7 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. W. Lee, C. S. Kim, and B. M. Kim, "External-line cavity wavelength-swept source at 850 nm for optical coherence tomography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 176-178 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, "Coherence radar and spectral radar—new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Wojtkowski, I. Gorczynska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, and J. J. Kaluzny, "Coherent noise-free ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2606-2611 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rep. Prog. Phys.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography—principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. J. Jung, J.-S. Park, M. Y. Jeong, C. S. Kim, T. J. Eom, V. A. Tougbaev, B.-A. Yu, W. Shin, D.-K. Ko, and J.- H. Lee, "Multi-wavelength source for the lower exposure intensity of spectral OCT," Proc. SPIE 6849-10, (2008).

American National Standards Institute, "American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers," ANSI Z 136-1 (2000).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration of the SD-OCT system using a multi-wavelength source based on a fiber Sagnac comb filter. SLD, superluminescent diode; SOA, semiconductor optical amplifier; PMF, polarization-maintaining fiber; PC, polarization controller; TDC, tunable directional coupler; ND, neutral density filter; GM, galvanometer mirror.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental measurements of the spectra of (a) the continuous spectral source of 11 mW, (b) the multi-wavelength source of 6 mW, and (c) the continuous spectral source of 6 mW. The inset shows that the spectra shown for source (a) is almost equal to the peak envelope of source (b) when measured within the narrow span band of 5 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental measurements of the interference fringe spectra of the OCT at an optical path length difference of 150 µm between two mirrors using (a) the continuous spectral source of 11 mW and (b) the multi-wavelength source of 6 mW.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Point spread functions at various optical length differences for (a) the continuous spectral source of 11 mW, (b) the multi-wavelength source of 6 mW, and (c) the continuous spectral source of 6 mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Block diagram simplified with the experimental setup.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Point spread functions from high-resolution measurements for (a) the continuous spectral source of 11 mW and (b) the multi-wavelength source of 6 mW.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

OCT imaging of the four slide glasses under attenuation film for (a) the continuous spectral source of 11 mW, (b) the multi-wavelength source of 6 mW, and (c) the continuous spectral source of 6 mW, respectively. The scale bar represents the relative log-scaled intensity.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

OCT imaging of the an ex-vivo rat eye using (a) the multi-wavelength source of 6 mW and (b) the continuous spectral source of 6 mW, respectively. The scale bar represents the relative log-scaled intensity.

Equations (9)

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Δ λ = λ 2 Δ n eo · L ,
p Sag = p cw + p ccw + 2 p cw p ccw cos ( 1 2 k Δ n eo L ) .
p Sag = 2 α [ 1 + cos ( 1 2 k Δ n eo L ) ] .
p OCT = 2 β [ 1 + cos ( k Δ L ) ] ,
p ( k ) = s ( k ) · p Sag · p OCT = s ( k ) · 4 α β [ 1 + cos ( 1 2 k Δ n eo L ) ] . [ 1 + cos ( k Δ L ) ] ,
P ( ζ ) = FT [ p ( k ) ]
= 4 π α β S ( ζ ) * { 2 δ ( ζ ) + δ ( ζ ζ OCT ) + δ ( ζ + ζ OCT ) + δ ( ζ ζ Sag ) + δ ( ζ + ζ Sag ) + 1 2 [ δ ( ζ ζ OCT ζ Sag ) + δ ( ζ ζ OCT + ζ Sag ) + δ ( ζ ζ Sag + ζ OCT ) + δ ( ζ + ζ Sag + ζ OCT ) ] } ,
P + ( ζ ) = 4 π α β S ( ζ ) * { 2 δ ( ζ ) + δ ( ζ ζ OCT ) + δ ( ζ ζ Sag ) + 1 2 [ δ ( ζ ζ OCT ζ Sag ) + δ ( ζ ζ Sag + ζ OCT ) ] } .
= 4 π α β [ 2 S ( ζ ) + S ( ζ ζ OCT ) + S ( ζ ζ Sag ) + 1 2 S ( ζ ζ OCT ζ Sag ) + 1 2 S ( ζ ζ Sag + ζ OCT ) ]

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