Abstract

In order to reduce the optical absorption loss, an array of double-heterostructure photonic crystal microcavity lasers was fabricated in which much of the photonic crystal mirror region was disordered by quantum well intermixing. In characterizing these devices, we obtained more than a factor of two increase in slope efficiencies and more than 20% reduction in threshold pump powers compared to devices that were not intermixed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Yang, A. Mock, J. D. O�??Brien, S. Lipson, and D. G. Deppe, "Edge-emitting photonic crystal doubleheterostructure nanocavity lasers with InAs quantum dot active material," Opt. Lett. 32, 1153-1155 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Lu, T. Yang, A. Mock, M. H. Shih, E. H. Hwang, M. Bagheri, A. Stapleton, S. Farrell, J. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "100 μW edge-emitting peak power from a photonic crystal double-heterostructure laser," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, Maryland, CMV3 (2007).
  5. V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Mock, L. Lu, and J. D. O�??Brien, "Spectral properties of photonic crystal double-heterostructure resonant cavities," Opt. Express 16, 9391-9397 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, SRIM-2003 (2005).
  11. M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Mathur and P. D. Dapkus, "Fabrication, characterization and analysis of low threshold current density 1.55-mu m-strained quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 222-226 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Mathur and P. D. Dapkus, "Fabrication, characterization and analysis of low threshold current density 1.55-mu m-strained quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 222-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aimez, V.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagheri, M.

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beauvais, J.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beerens, J.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchanan, M.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, S.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. J.

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mathur and P. D. Dapkus, "Fabrication, characterization and analysis of low threshold current density 1.55-mu m-strained quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 222-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Davies, M.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

Feng, Y.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, R. D.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hausser, S.

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haysom, J.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, J. J.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, E. H.

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, Y. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keppler, F.

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. B.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koteles, E. S.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, W.

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lal, V.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, H. S.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S.

Lu, L.

A. Mock, L. Lu, and J. D. O�??Brien, "Spectral properties of photonic crystal double-heterostructure resonant cavities," Opt. Express 16, 9391-9397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Masanovic, M. L.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, A.

A. Mathur and P. D. Dapkus, "Fabrication, characterization and analysis of low threshold current density 1.55-mu m-strained quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 222-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, I. V.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mock, A.

Morris, D.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, G. B.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O???Brien, J. D.

A. Mock, L. Lu, and J. D. O�??Brien, "Spectral properties of photonic crystal double-heterostructure resonant cavities," Opt. Express 16, 9391-9397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yang, A. Mock, J. D. O�??Brien, S. Lipson, and D. G. Deppe, "Edge-emitting photonic crystal doubleheterostructure nanocavity lasers with InAs quantum dot active material," Opt. Lett. 32, 1153-1155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ooi, B. S.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H. G.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilkuhn, M. H.

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Piva, P. G.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poole, P. J.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Raring, J.W.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, R.

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. H.

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skogen, E. J.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. T.

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. S.

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. J.

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K.

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

T. Yang, A. Mock, J. D. O�??Brien, S. Lipson, and D. G. Deppe, "Edge-emitting photonic crystal doubleheterostructure nanocavity lasers with InAs quantum dot active material," Opt. Lett. 32, 1153-1155 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielinski, E.

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. H. Shih,W. Kuang, A. Mock, M. Bagheri, E. H. Hwang, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "High-quality-factor photonic crystal heterostructure laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101,104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Mathur and P. D. Dapkus, "Fabrication, characterization and analysis of low threshold current density 1.55-mu m-strained quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 222-226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Zielinski, F. Keppler, S. Hausser, M. H. Pilkuhn, R. Sauer, and W. T. Tsang, "Optical gain and loss processes in GaInAs InP MQW laser structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1407-1416 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Aimez, J. Beauvais, J. Beerens, D. Morris, H. S. Lim, and B. S. Ooi, "Low-energy ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 870-879 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Charbonneau, E. S. Koteles, P. J. Poole, J. J. He, G. C. Aers, J. Haysom, M. Buchanan, Y. Feng, A. Delage, F. Yang, M. Davies, R. D. Goldberg, P. G. Piva, and I. V. Mitchell, "Photonic integrated circuits fabricated using ion implantation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 772-793 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Skogen, J.W. Raring, G. B. Morrison, C. S. Wang, V. Lal, M. L. Masanovic, and L. A. Coldren, "Monolithically integrated active components: A quantum-well intermixing approach," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 343-355 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. H. Shih, W. Kuang, T. Yang, M. Bagheri, Z. J. Wei, S. J. Choi, L. Lu, J. D. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "Experimental characterization of the optical loss of sapphire-bonded photonic crystal laser cavities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 535-537 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Materials

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Materials 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O�??Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two-dimensional photonic band-gap defect mode laser," Science 284, 1819-1821 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Park, S. H. Kim, S. H. Kwon, Y. G. Ju, J. K. Yang, J. H. Baek, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Electrically driven single-cell photonic crystal laser," Science 305, 1444-1447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

L. Lu, T. Yang, A. Mock, M. H. Shih, E. H. Hwang, M. Bagheri, A. Stapleton, S. Farrell, J. O�??Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, "100 μW edge-emitting peak power from a photonic crystal double-heterostructure laser," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Baltimore, Maryland, CMV3 (2007).

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, SRIM-2003 (2005).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of an intermixed DH cavity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color) (a)Top view SEM image of a fabricated intermixed PC DH cavity. Its QW active region (g) after intermixing is illustrated on top. (b)Hz field component of the DH high-Q mode at the mid-plane of the membrane calculated by 3D FDTD. Air holes are outlined in gray and the perturbed center defect lattices are in darker gray. In both Fig. 2(a) and 2(b), a2 is 5% larger than a1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color) PL spectra taken at different regions on the QW sample. (a)PL spectra of ion-implanted and ion-free QW regions after annealing, compared with PL of an as-grown QW reference sample under the same experimental condition. (b)PL taken at the transition regions of gain stripes with different width.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color) Light-in-light-out (L-L) curves of the PC DH lasers with 2µm gain stripe and the corresponding non-intermixed reference. Their lasing spectra are shown as inset.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser characteristics of three PC DH lasers of different gain stripe widths (g=4, 3, and 2µm) with their non-intermixed references named (g=∞). Their lattice constants (a1) are 420nm. The ratio is calculated using data from g=4,3,2 over data from g=∞ in the table. r/a1 is computed through top-view SEM images using an edge detection routine.

Equations (2)

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Γ g threshold = α total = α passive + α absorption ,
η slope = η collection η internal α passive α passive + α absorption .

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