Abstract

Resonant scattering and local field enhancements by 11-nm-thin gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counter propagating slow surface plasmon polaritons is investigated. We characterize nanostrips of widths between 50-530 nm using both reflection spectroscopy and nonlinear scanning optical microscopy, in which two-photon-excited photoluminescence (TPL) excited with a strongly focused laser beam at the wavelength 745 nm is detected. We use TPL images to map the local field enhancements from individual nanostrips at a resolution of 0.35µm and compare results with theoretical calculated reflection spectra, enhancement levels and field distributions across the strip.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Optics of Nanostructured Materials, V. M. Markel and T. F. George, eds. (John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 2001).
  2. G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, "Near-Field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, "Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Microscopy of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155429 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements," Phys. Rev. B. 75, 073402 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5041-5043 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Søndergaard, J. Beermann, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant-nanostrip antennas: Analysis and demonstration," Phys. Rev. B. 77, 115420 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Søndergaard,"Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green�??s function integral equation methods," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3448-3462 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures," Opt. Express 15, 15234-15241 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15234.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, London, 1992).
  21. T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Metal nano-strip optical resonators," Opt. Express 15, 4198-4204 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4198.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Søndergaard, J. Beermann, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant-nanostrip antennas: Analysis and demonstration," Phys. Rev. B. 77, 115420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

T. Søndergaard,"Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green�??s function integral equation methods," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3448-3462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures," Opt. Express 15, 15234-15241 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15234.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Metal nano-strip optical resonators," Opt. Express 15, 4198-4204 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4198.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements," Phys. Rev. B. 75, 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Microscopy of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, "Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5041-5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.

1999 (1)

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, "Near-Field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Beermann, J.

T. Søndergaard, J. Beermann, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant-nanostrip antennas: Analysis and demonstration," Phys. Rev. B. 77, 115420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures," Opt. Express 15, 15234-15241 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15234.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Microscopy of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, "Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5041-5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5041-5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Søndergaard, J. Beermann, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant-nanostrip antennas: Analysis and demonstration," Phys. Rev. B. 77, 115420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements," Phys. Rev. B. 75, 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Metal nano-strip optical resonators," Opt. Express 15, 4198-4204 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4198.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Beermann, I. P. Radko, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Localized field enhancements in fractal shaped periodic metal nanostructures," Opt. Express 15, 15234-15241 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-23-15234.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Microscopy of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, "Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, "Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghenuche, P.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mühlschlegel, P.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5041-5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, "Near-Field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

Rasing, Th.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, S. G.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, E. J.

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, "Near-Field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.

Schuck, P. J.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

T. Søndergaard, J. Beermann, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant-nanostrip antennas: Analysis and demonstration," Phys. Rev. B. 77, 115420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Metal nano-strip optical resonators," Opt. Express 15, 4198-4204 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-4198.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Søndergaard,"Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green�??s function integral equation methods," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3448-3462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements," Phys. Rev. B. 75, 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, "Near-Field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. H.

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Characterization of nanoplasmonic structures by locally excited photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5041-5043 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and biophysics," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, R597-R624 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. K. Sarychev and V. M. Shalaev, "Electromagnetic field fluctuations and optical nonlinearities in metaldielectric composites," Phys. Rep. 335, 275-371 (2000);M. I. Stockman, "Local fields�?? localization and chaos and nonlinear-optical enhancement in clusters and composites," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, Ref. 1, p. 313, and references therein.

Phys. Rev. B (5)

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. Garcia-Vidal, J. Beermann, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy of gold nanoparticle arrays on gold films," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, and Y. R. Shen, "Local-field enhancement on rough surfaces of metals, semimetals, and semiconductors with the use of optical second-harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. B 30, 519-526 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Microscopy of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155429 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, Z. H. Yu, and Y. R. Shen, "Photoinduced luminescence from the noble metals and its enhancement on roughened surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 33, 7923-7936 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, "Continuum generation from single gold nanostructures through near-field mediated intraband transitions," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115433 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (2)

T. Søndergaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: Scattering and field enhancements," Phys. Rev. B. 75, 073402 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Søndergaard, J. Beermann, A. Boltasseva, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Slow-plasmon resonant-nanostrip antennas: Analysis and demonstration," Phys. Rev. B. 77, 115420 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Mooradian, "Photoluminescence of metals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 185-187 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, "Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Sánchez, L. Novotny, and X. S. Xie, "Near-Field fluorescence microscopy based on two-photon excitation with metal tips," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4014-4017 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, "Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

T. Søndergaard,"Modeling of plasmonic nanostructures: Green�??s function integral equation methods," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3448-3462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Optics of Nanostructured Materials, V. M. Markel and T. F. George, eds. (John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, 2001).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, London, 1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of a strip resonator along with (b) an SEM-image of strip resonators produced by EBL and having thickness 11.5 nm, width 530 nm, and length 5 µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental setup for reflection spectroscopy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Calculated and (b) measured scattering spectra for 11.5-nm-thin gold strips of different widths w placed on quartz and covered by index-matching oil.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup for nonlinear scanning optical microscopy working in reflection with a Ti-sapphire laser, optical isolator (OI), half-wave plate (λ/2), polarizer (P), beam splitter (BS), filters F1 and F2, wavelength selective beam splitter (WSBS), objective (L), sample (S) placed on XY-table, analyzer A1, and photo multiplier tubes (PMTs). (b) FH and (c)-(d) TPL images of two gold strips with thickness 11.5nm, width w=530 nm and length 5 µm being obtained at λ=745 nm for [(b) and (c)] p-polarized and (d) s-polarized excitation as indicated by arrows. The incident power was (c) ~0.15 mW and (d) ~0.25 mW and the average TPL signal from the center of the strip is (c) ~140 and (d) ~340 counts/100ms.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)-(l) TPL images of increasing strip widths starting from (a) 55 nm to (l) 530 nm at ~45 nm increments and obtained at incident powers of 0.1 mW, except for 55-nm which was obtained at 0.2 mW. Maximum TPL signal was (a) ~210, (b) ~3680, (c) ~2580, (d) ~1390, (e) ~1250, (f) ~590, (g) ~510, (h) ~1510, (i) ~450, (j) ~470, (k) ~410, and (l) ~590cps. (m) Normalized cross-sections obtained from the white-dashed lines on the respective TPL images.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Theoretical field distributions across the nanostrip calculated for p-polarized excitation for widths (a) 100nm, (b) 250nm, (c) 350 nm, and (d) 500nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Theoretical and experimental dependence of the intensity enhancement α on the strip width increasing from 55 nm to 530 nm. The excitation wavelength was 745 nm in both theory and experiments, but with an excitation line width of δλ~10 nm in the experiments.

Equations (2)

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α 2 = TPL strip P film 2 A film TPL film P strip 2 A strip ,
α 2 = x = w / 2 x = + w / 2 1 w E ( x , y = 0 ) / E 0 ( x , y = 0 ) 4 d x ,

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