Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate a magnetically tunable left-handed metamaterial by introducing yttrium iron garnet rods into SRRs/wires array. It shows that the left-handed passband of the metamaterial can be continuously and reversibly adjusted by external dc applied magnetic fields. Retrieved effective parameters based on simulated scattering parameters show that tunable effective refraction index can be conveniently realized in a broad frequency range by changing the applied magnetic field. Different from those tuned by controlling the capacitance of equivalent LC circuit of SRR, this metamaterial is based on a mechanism of magnetically tuning the inductance via the active ambient effective permeability.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Chen, Bae-Ian Wu, L. Ran, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a steerable antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053509 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. V. Shadrivov, S. K. Morrison, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials," Opt. Express 14, 9344-9349 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. H. Werner, Do-Hoon Kwon, and Iam-Choon Khoo, "Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices," Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, S. Butun, K. Kolodziejak, and D. Pawlak, "Ferroelectric based tuneable SRR based metamaterial for microwave applications," in Proceedings of the 37th European Microwave Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 497-499.
  17. F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Kang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhao, and J. Zhou, "Magnetically tunable negative permeability metamaterial composed by split ring resonators and ferrite rods," Opt. Express 16, 8825-8834 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. L. Efros, "Comment II on Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 048602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. B. Bregara and M. Pavlin, "Effective-susceptibility tensor for a composite with ferromagnetic inclusions: enhancement of effective-media theory and alternative ferromagnetic approach," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6289-6293 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. B. Bregara, "Effective-medium approach to the magnetic susceptibility of compositeswith ferromagnetic inclusions," Phys. Rev. B 71, 174418 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. W. Milton, "Bounds on the complex permettivity of a two-component composite material," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 5286-5293 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Lax and K. J. Button, Microwave ferrites and ferrimagnetics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962).

2008 (2)

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Kang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhao, and J. Zhou, "Magnetically tunable negative permeability metamaterial composed by split ring resonators and ferrite rods," Opt. Express 16, 8825-8834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Werner, Do-Hoon Kwon, and Iam-Choon Khoo, "Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices," Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Bae-Ian Wu, L. Ran, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a steerable antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, Bae-Ian Wu, L. Ran, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a steerable antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, S. K. Morrison, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials," Opt. Express 14, 9344-9349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Bregara, "Effective-medium approach to the magnetic susceptibility of compositeswith ferromagnetic inclusions," Phys. Rev. B 71, 174418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. B. Bregara and M. Pavlin, "Effective-susceptibility tensor for a composite with ferromagnetic inclusions: enhancement of effective-media theory and alternative ferromagnetic approach," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6289-6293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Efros, "Comment II on Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 048602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

G. W. Milton, "Bounds on the complex permettivity of a two-component composite material," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 5286-5293 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Armstead, D. N.

F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae-Ian Wu, H.

H. Chen, Bae-Ian Wu, L. Ran, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a steerable antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bregara, V. B.

V. B. Bregara, "Effective-medium approach to the magnetic susceptibility of compositeswith ferromagnetic inclusions," Phys. Rev. B 71, 174418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Bregara and M. Pavlin, "Effective-susceptibility tensor for a composite with ferromagnetic inclusions: enhancement of effective-media theory and alternative ferromagnetic approach," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6289-6293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Bae-Ian Wu, L. Ran, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a steerable antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

Du, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

A. L. Efros, "Comment II on Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 048602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Q. H.

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaillot, D. P.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalo, R.

E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, V. G.

F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikonen, P. M. T.

E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Kang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhao, and J. Zhou, "Magnetically tunable negative permeability metamaterial composed by split ring resonators and ferrite rods," Opt. Express 16, 8825-8834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Koschny, T.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lippens, D.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G. W.

G. W. Milton, "Bounds on the complex permettivity of a two-component composite material," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 5286-5293 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrison, S. K.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlin, M.

V. B. Bregara and M. Pavlin, "Effective-susceptibility tensor for a composite with ferromagnetic inclusions: enhancement of effective-media theory and alternative ferromagnetic approach," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6289-6293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rachford, F. J.

F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saenz, E.

E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shadrivov, I. V.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steward, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S. A.

E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vittoria, C.

F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, D. H.

Yongs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, H. J.

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Kang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhao, and J. Zhou, "Magnetically tunable negative permeability metamaterial composed by split ring resonators and ferrite rods," Opt. Express 16, 8825-8834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. P.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Kang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhao, and J. Zhou, "Magnetically tunable negative permeability metamaterial composed by split ring resonators and ferrite rods," Opt. Express 16, 8825-8834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, and J. Zhou, "Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. P. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, "Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, Bae-Ian Wu, L. Ran, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, "Controllable left-handed metamaterial and its application to a steerable antenna," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 053509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhao, J. Zhou, Q. Zhao, B. Li, L. Kang, and Y. Bai, "Magnetotunable left-handed material consisting of yttrium iron garnet slab and metallic wires," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Steward, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. B. Bregara and M. Pavlin, "Effective-susceptibility tensor for a composite with ferromagnetic inclusions: enhancement of effective-media theory and alternative ferromagnetic approach," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 6289-6293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Milton, "Bounds on the complex permettivity of a two-component composite material," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 5286-5293 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Saenz, P. M. T. Ikonen, R. Gonzalo, and S. A. Tretyakov, "On the definition of effective permittivity and permeability for thin composite layers," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 114910 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

X. P. Zhao, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, J. Song, and Q. H. Fu, "Defect effect of split ring resonators in left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Lett. A 346, 87-91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. B. Bregara, "Effective-medium approach to the magnetic susceptibility of compositeswith ferromagnetic inclusions," Phys. Rev. B 71, 174418 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Efros, "Comment II on Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 70, 048602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Reply to comments on "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials,"Phys. Rev. E 70, 048603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and I. Yongs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures, " Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Rachford, D. N. Armstead, V. G. Harris, and C. Vittoria, "Simulations of ferrite-dielectric-wire composite negative index materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 057202 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314,977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soviet Physics USPEKI (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Soviet Physics USPEKI 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, S. Butun, K. Kolodziejak, and D. Pawlak, "Ferroelectric based tuneable SRR based metamaterial for microwave applications," in Proceedings of the 37th European Microwave Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 497-499.

B. Lax and K. J. Button, Microwave ferrites and ferrimagnetics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the magnetically tunable left-handed metamaterial (LHM) composed of SRRs/wires array and YIG rods in rectangular waveguide. S21 parameters of SRRs array with YIG rods under zero magnetic field (black solid) and that of wires (red dash) are shown in the inset.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental S21 parameters of LHM sample as a function of applied dc magnetic field within the range of zero to 1700 Oe (a), 2700 Oe to 5000 Oe (b), and 2300 Oe(c). Qualitative evolution of the dependence of µ ¯ x,am on magnetic field based on calculation of single YIG rod [23-28] is shown in (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Retrieved µeff , εeff and neff of LHM with YIG rods under dc magnetic fields are shown in (a) (b) and (c), respectively. Corresponding spectra of energy absorption are numerically calculated and shown in the inset of (c). Abscissas of insets of (a), (b) and (c) are in unit of gigahertz. With simulation model shown in the inset, (d) shows the dependence of frequency and value tuning of Re(neff ) on the applied magnetic field.

Metrics