Abstract

We demonstrate that higher order rocking filters coupling energy between polarization modes at several wavelengths can be fabricated in a birefringent photonic crystal fiber using a fusion arc splicer. Three resonant couplings were identified, respectively at 855, 1271, and 1623 nm for the filter with a pitch distance of 8 mm characterized in this work. We also measured the filter response to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure at the first and the second resonance. Our results show that the fabricated filter has very low sensitivity to temperature 1.77 and 1.38 pm/K, moderate sensitivity to elongation 1.35 and 1.12 nm/mstrain, and extremely high sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure 6.14 and 3.30 nm/MPa, respectively at the first and the second resonance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Spectral dependence of sensitivity of highly birefringent fibers to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure," Optik 111, 97-102 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4739??4744 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

D. E. Ceballos-Herrera, I. Torres-Gómez, A. Martínez-Ríos, G. Anzueto-Sánchez, J. A. ?lvarez-Chávez, R. Selvas-Aguilar, and J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, "Ultra-widely tunable long-period holey-fiber grating by the use of mechanical pressure," Appl. Opt. 46, 307-311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306-1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (5)

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain," Opt. Commun. 241, 339-348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4739??4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. ?slund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 5160??5165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Structural rocking filters in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 158-160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Spectral dependence of sensitivity of highly birefringent fibers to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure," Optik 111, 97-102 (2000).

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air - silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 2-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, "Polarization measurements of single-mode fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1187-1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

?lvarez-Chávez, J. A.

?slund, M.

Anzueto-Sánchez, G.

Atkin, D. M.

Bang, O.

Bay, H.

Bennion, I.

Berghmans, F.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bock, W. J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, "Dispersion effects in elliptical core highly birefringent fibers," Appl. Opt. 40, 1911-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Spectral dependence of sensitivity of highly birefringent fibers to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure," Optik 111, 97-102 (2000).

Calvani, R.

R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, "Polarization measurements of single-mode fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1187-1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Caponi, R.

R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, "Polarization measurements of single-mode fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1187-1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ceballos-Herrera, D. E.

Chen, J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cisternino, F.

R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, "Polarization measurements of single-mode fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1187-1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Digweed, J.

Dobb, H.

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306-1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dufva, M.

Eftimov, T.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fhvrier, S.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

Golojuch, G.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

Høiby, P. E.

Hu, J.

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Jeong, Y. S.

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Jung, Y.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kalli, K.

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306-1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaul, R.

Kawanishi, S.

Kirchhof, J.

Knight, J. C.

Kobelke, J.

Korwin-Pawlowski, M.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lee, D.

Liu, Y.

H. Wai Lee, Y. Liu, and K. Seng Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO2-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

Lyytikäinen, K.

Mägi, E. C.

Makara, M.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Ríos, A.

Martynkien, T.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain," Opt. Commun. 241, 339-348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4739??4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, "Dispersion effects in elliptical core highly birefringent fibers," Appl. Opt. 40, 1911-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Spectral dependence of sensitivity of highly birefringent fibers to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure," Optik 111, 97-102 (2000).

Mergo, P.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Michie, A.

Mikulic, P.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E. D.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Olszewski, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Pagnoux, D.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Petrovic, J. S.

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air - silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 2-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Roy, P.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Russell, R. ST. J.

Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.

Schuster, K.

Selvas-Aguilar, R.

Seng Chiang, K.

H. Wai Lee, Y. Liu, and K. Seng Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO2-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X. W.

Shum, P.

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain," Opt. Commun. 241, 339-348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Stentz, A. J.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air - silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 2-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

Szpulak, M.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4739??4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Thienpont, H.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres-Gómez, I.

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain," Opt. Commun. 241, 339-348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 43, 4739??4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, "Dispersion effects in elliptical core highly birefringent fibers," Appl. Opt. 40, 1911-1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Spectral dependence of sensitivity of highly birefringent fibers to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure," Optik 111, 97-102 (2000).

Wai Lee, H.

H. Wai Lee, Y. Liu, and K. Seng Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO2-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

J. S. Petrovic, H. Dobb, V. K. Mezentsev, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "Sensitivity of LPGs in PCFs fabricated by an electric arc to temperature, strain, and external refractive index," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1306-1312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air - silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 2-28 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

Xiao, L.

Yan, M.

Yu, X.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, Ch. L.

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fhvrier, P. Roy, and D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in Ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Wai Lee, Y. Liu, and K. Seng Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO2-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Ligthwave Technol. (1)

R. Calvani, R. Caponi, and F. Cisternino, "Polarization measurements of single-mode fibers," J. Ligthwave Technol. 7, 1187-1196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M.  Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3055-3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, and M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3098-3102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of modal birefringence and polarimetric sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain," Opt. Commun. 241, 339-348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, and D. J. Webb, "Measured sensitivity of arc-induced long-period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 260, 184-191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optik (1)

T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and W. J. Bock, "Spectral dependence of sensitivity of highly birefringent fibers to temperature, elongation and hydrostatic pressure," Optik 111, 97-102 (2000).

Proc. of SPIE (1)

W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, and J. Wojcik, "Photonic crystal fibers for sensing applications," Proc. of SPIE 5950, 260??269 (2005).

Other (2)

G. Kakarantzas, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Rocking Filter Formation in Non- Photosensitive Highly-Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibers," 28th European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC 2002, Copenhagen, Denmark (2002), pp. 1-2.

L. Y. Zang, M. S. Kang, G. J. Pearce, M. Scharrer, S. Rammler, and P. St. J. Russell, "Dispersive Properties of Rocking Filters in Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber," IEEE/LEOS Winter Topical Meeting, Sorrento, Italy (2008), pp. 192-193.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the birefringent PCF used for fabrication of the rocking filter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral dependence of phase (a) and group (b) modal birefringence measured in the birefringent photonic crystal fiber used for fabrication of the rocking filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral dependence of the polarimetric sensitivity to temperature (a), hydrostatic pressure (b) and elongation (c).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

System for fabrication of the rocking filter using fusion splicer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectra for the excited (a) and non excited (b) polarization modes measured for the rocking filter with a period Λ=8 mm and 13 coupling points.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral dependence of the beat length in the fiber used for fabrication of the rocking filter with predicted location of resonances for a filter period Λ=8mm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Transmission characteristic of the rocking filter measured near the second resonance for excited polarization mode at 10° C and 100° C (a) and the displacement of the resonant wavelength against temperature (b).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission characteristic of the rocking filter measured near the second resonance for excited polarization mode at p=0.01 MPa (atmospheric pressure), 5 MPa, and 10 MPa (a) and the displacement of the resonant wavelength against applied pressure (b).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmission characteristic of the rocking filter measured near the second resonance for excited polarization mode at 0 and 1 mstrain (a) and the displacement of the resonant wavelength against applied elongation (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sensing characteristics of the rocking filter measured and calculated from eq. (9) at the first and the second resonance. For convenience, we also present the polarimetric sensitivities of the fiber at the same wavelengths.

Equations (9)

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G = B λ d B
K T = 1 L d ( φ x φ y ) d T = 2 π λ ( d B d T + B α ) ,
i λ = Λ B ( λ )
i L B = Λ
( B L λ ) ∂λ d λ + ( BL λ ) X d X = 0 .
( B L λ ) ∂X = 1 λ ( dL d X B + d B d X L ) = B L λ ( 1 L d L d X + 1 B d B d X ) ,
( B L λ ) λ = L λ 2 ( B λ d B ) = L λ 2 G .
1 λ d λ d X = B G ( 1 L ∂λ X + 1 B B ∂X ) ,
d λ d X = λ 2 K X 2 π G .

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