Abstract

By analyzing the nonlinear optical response in an asymmetric coupled double quantum well structure based on the intersubband transitions, we show that a giant Kerr nonlinearity with a relatively large cross-phase modulation coefficient can be used to produce efficient photonphoton entanglement and implement an all-optical two-qubit quantum polarization phase gate. We also demonstrate that such photon-photon entanglement is practically controllable and may facilitate more practical applications in all-optical quantum information and computation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

J. Li, "Coherent control of optical bistability in tunnel-coupled double quantum wells," Opt. Commun. 274, 366-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express. 13, 9909-9915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

L. Silvestri, F. Bassani, G. Czajkowski, and B. Davoudi, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in asymmetric double quantum wells," Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 89-102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. C. Phillips, E. Paspalakis, G. B. Serapiglia, C. Sirtori, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and measurements of subband dynamics in a semiconductor quantum well," Physica E 7, 166-173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

W. K. Wootters, "Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245-2248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoglu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, "Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: Coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4633-4636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

H. Schmidt, K. L. Campman, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoglu, "Tunneling induced transparency: Fano interference in intersubband transitions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3455-3457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (2)

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043-11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, "Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903-4906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassani, F.

L. Silvestri, F. Bassani, G. Czajkowski, and B. Davoudi, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in asymmetric double quantum wells," Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 89-102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043-11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, "Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903-4906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Butov, L. V.

D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoglu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, "Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: Coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4633-4636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Campman, K. L.

H. Schmidt, K. L. Campman, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoglu, "Tunneling induced transparency: Fano interference in intersubband transitions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3455-3457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Chang, S.W.

Chang-Hasnain, C.

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express. 13, 9909-9915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chu, S.-N. G.

Chuang, S. L.

P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. Wang, S.W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043-11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, "Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903-4906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crankshaw, S.

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express. 13, 9909-9915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czajkowski, G.

L. Silvestri, F. Bassani, G. Czajkowski, and B. Davoudi, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in asymmetric double quantum wells," Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 89-102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davoudi, B.

L. Silvestri, F. Bassani, G. Czajkowski, and B. Davoudi, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in asymmetric double quantum wells," Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 89-102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ginzburg, P.

Gossard, A. C.

H. Schmidt, K. L. Campman, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoglu, "Tunneling induced transparency: Fano interference in intersubband transitions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3455-3457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically Induced Transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoglu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, "Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: Coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4633-4636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, K. L. Campman, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoglu, "Tunneling induced transparency: Fano interference in intersubband transitions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3455-3457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593-2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohler, K.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, P. C.

Leo, K.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, "Coherent control of optical bistability in tunnel-coupled double quantum wells," Opt. Commun. 274, 366-371 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Luo, M. S. C.

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043-11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, "Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903-4906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media," Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633-674 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moewe, M.

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express. 13, 9909-9915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikonov, D. E.

D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoglu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, "Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: Coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4633-4636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, "Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903-4906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043-11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orenstein, M.

Palinginis, P.

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express. 13, 9909-9915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. Wang, S.W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paspalakis, E.

C. C. Phillips, E. Paspalakis, G. B. Serapiglia, C. Sirtori, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and measurements of subband dynamics in a semiconductor quantum well," Physica E 7, 166-173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

Phillips, C. C.

C. C. Phillips, E. Paspalakis, G. B. Serapiglia, C. Sirtori, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and measurements of subband dynamics in a semiconductor quantum well," Physica E 7, 166-173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, and S. L. Chuang, "Coherent control of terahertz charge oscillations in a coupled quantum well using phase-locked optical pulses," Phys. Rev. B 48, 4903-4906 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043-11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarkar, S.

Schmidt, H.

D. E. Nikonov, A. Imamoglu, L. V. Butov, and H. Schmidt, "Collective intersubband excitations in quantum wells: Coulomb interaction versus subband dispersion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4633-4636 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, K. L. Campman, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoglu, "Tunneling induced transparency: Fano interference in intersubband transitions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3455-3457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamoglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sedgwick, F.

P. Palinginis, F. Sedgwick, S. Crankshaw, M. Moewe, and C. Chang-Hasnain, "Room temperature slow light in a quantum-well waveguide via coherent population oscillation," Opt. Express. 13, 9909-9915 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Ku, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Palinginis, T. Li, H. Wang, S.W. Chang, and S. L. Chuang, "Slow light in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Lett. 29, 2291-2293 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serapiglia, G. B.

C. C. Phillips, E. Paspalakis, G. B. Serapiglia, C. Sirtori, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and measurements of subband dynamics in a semiconductor quantum well," Physica E 7, 166-173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216-2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvestri, L.

L. Silvestri, F. Bassani, G. Czajkowski, and B. Davoudi, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in asymmetric double quantum wells," Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 89-102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. C. Phillips, E. Paspalakis, G. B. Serapiglia, C. Sirtori, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and measurements of subband dynamics in a semiconductor quantum well," Physica E 7, 166-173 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, S.-N. G. Chu, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, "Tunable Fano interference in intersubband absorption," Opt. Lett. 21, 985-988 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Schmidt, K. L. Campman, A. C. Gossard, and A. Imamoglu, "Tunneling induced transparency: Fano interference in intersubband transitions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3455-3457 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

L. Silvestri, F. Bassani, G. Czajkowski, and B. Davoudi, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in asymmetric double quantum wells," Eur. Phys. J. B 27, 89-102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express. (1)

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E. Paspalakis, M. Tsaousidou, and A. F. Terzis, "Coherent manipulation of a strongly driven semiconductor quantum well," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125344(1-5) (2006). </>
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W. X. Yang, J. M. Hou, and R.-K. Lee, "Ultraslow bright and dark solitons in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. A 77, 033838(1-7) (2008).
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J.-H. Wu, J.-Y. Gao, J.-H. Xu, L. Silvestri, M. Artoni, G. C. La Rocca, and F. Bassani "Ultrafast All Optical Switching via Tunable Fano Interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 057401(1-4) (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic band diagram of the asymmetric CQW structure consisting of a wide well (WW) and a narrow well (NW). (b) Schematic of the four-level electronic system synthesized in CQW structure. Ω p (σ +polarization), Ω s (σ-polarization), and Ω c are the Rabi frequencies of the probe, signal, and cw control fields, respectively. The Δ i j denotes the corresponding detunings. (c) Possible arrangement of experimental apparatus. Ec represents the control field and Ep (Es ) represents the σ+ (σ-) polarized probe (signal) field, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The real and imaginary parts of (a) the linear susceptibility χ(1)p=N|µ13|2/h̄ε0χ′(1)p, and (b) third-order self-Kerr susceptibility χ(3,S)p=N|µ13| 4/h̄3ε0χ′(3,S)p versus the detuning of the probe field Δ13 (in the unit of meV). Other parameters used here are given by γ2 =0, γ3l =γ4l =3.5meV, γdph3=γ dph4=1.5meV, Δ24=8meV, Ω c =25meV, and Ω s =2.5meV.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The real and imaginary parts of the third-order cross-Kerr susceptibilities for (a) the probe field χ(3,C) p =N13|224|2/h̄3ε0χ′(3,C)p, and (b) the signal field χ(3,C)s=N13|224|2/h̄3ε0χ′(3,C)s versus the detunings Δ24 (in the unit of meV) at the center of EIT window. Other parameters used are the same as those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dimensionless group velocities (νg ) p,s /ν of the probe and signal fields versus the detunings of the signal field Δ24 (in the unit of meV) for ν=106m/s, in which the solid and dashed lines denote the probe and signal fields, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The concurrence versus the detuning of the signal field (in the unit of meV) for two different Rabi frequencies of control field.

Equations (16)

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i A 1 t = Ω p * A 3 ,
i A 2 t = ( Δ 23 i γ 2 2 ) A 2 + Ω c * A 3 + Ω s * A 4 ,
i A 3 t = ( Δ 13 i γ 3 2 ) A 3 + Ω p A 1 + Ω c A 2 + i κ A 4 ,
i A 4 t = ( Δ 24 i γ 4 2 ) A 4 + Ω s A 2 + i κ A 3 ,
A j = 2 , 3 , 4 = ( c Ω c * i Ω s * κ ) δ j 2 + ( b c + Ω s 2 ) δ j 3 + ( i b κ Ω c * Ω s ) δ j 4 a b c + b κ 2 a Ω s 2 c Ω c 2 + i κ ( Ω c * Ω s + Ω c Ω s * ) Ω p ,
χ p = N μ 13 2 h ̄ ε 0 A 3 A 1 * Ω p χ p ( 1 ) + χ p ( 3 , S ) E p 2 + χ p ( 3 , C ) E s 2 ,
χ s = N μ 24 2 h ̄ ε 0 A 4 A 2 * Ω s χ s ( 3 , C ) E p 2 ,
( n g ) i = Re [ χ ] + ( ω i 2 ) ( Re [ χ ] ω ) ω i
ϕ 3 , C p = k p L π 3 2 h ̄ 2 Ω s peak 2 4 μ 24 2 e r f [ ζ p ] ζ p R e [ χ p ( 3 , C ) ] ,
ϕ 3 , C s = k s L π 3 2 h ̄ 2 Ω p peak 2 4 μ 13 2 e r f [ ζ s ] ζ s R e [ χ s ( 3 , C ) ] ,
0 p 0 s exp [ i ( ϕ 0 p + ϕ 0 s ) ] 0 p 0 s ,
0 p 1 s exp [ i ( ϕ 0 p + ϕ 0 s ) ] 0 p 1 s ,
1 p 1 s exp [ i ( ϕ Λ p + ϕ 0 s ) ] 1 p 1 s ,
1 p 0 s exp [ i ( ϕ total p + ϕ 0 s ) ] 1 p 0 s .
E F ( C ) = h ( 1 + 1 C 2 2 ) ,
C ( ρ ̂ ) = max { 0 , λ 1 λ 2 λ 3 λ 4 } ,

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