Abstract

Three approaches to controlling liquid crystal (LC) pre-tilt angle in a cell are demonstrated using a polyimide (PI) alignment layer on substrates, in the form of a mixture of horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polyimides. The concentration ratio of H- to V-PI, baking temperature, and rubbing strength influence the pre-tilt angle, and highlight parameters for controlling the pre-tilt angle of an LC cell. Finally, a variable polarization converter is demonstrated using this approach.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Sinha, B. Wen, and C. Rosenblatt, "Large, continuously controllable nematic pretilt from vertical orientation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2543-2545 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, "Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. A. 31, 488 (1941).

2008

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, "Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. P. Sinha, B. Wen, and C. Rosenblatt, "Large, continuously controllable nematic pretilt from vertical orientation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2543-2545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1984

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1941

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. A. 31, 488 (1941).

Ahn, H. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H. K.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benderskii, A. V.

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bordenyuk, A. N.

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. J.

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, "Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K. L.

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, "Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y. L.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. H.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jayathilake, H. D.

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jo, M. K.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jo, S. J.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. C.

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems," J. Opt. Soc. A. 31, 488 (1941).

Kang, D.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. B.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koehler-Beran, K. R.

P. J. Bos and K. R. Koehler-Beran, "The pi-cell: a fast liquid-crystal optical-switching device," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 113, 329-339 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. L.

C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, F. K.

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nehring, J.

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. S.

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Sinha, B. Wen, and C. Rosenblatt, "Large, continuously controllable nematic pretilt from vertical orientation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2543-2545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheffer, T. J.

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, "Accurate determination of liquid-crystal tilt bias angles," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1783-1792 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, G. P.

G. P. Sinha, B. Wen, and C. Rosenblatt, "Large, continuously controllable nematic pretilt from vertical orientation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2543-2545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, M.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, O. K.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, K. E.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wan, J. T.

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weeraman, C.

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wen, B.

G. P. Sinha, B. Wen, and C. Rosenblatt, "Large, continuously controllable nematic pretilt from vertical orientation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2543-2545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F. C.

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, F. S.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, F. C. Xie, J. T. Wan, F. K. Lee, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, "Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using nanotextured surfaces," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 124506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M. H.

H. D. Jayathilake, M. H. Zhu, C. Rosenblatt, A. N. Bordenyuk, C. Weeraman, and A. V. Benderskii, "Rubbing-induced anisotropy of long alkyl side chains at polyimide surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, and T. Uchida, "Crucial influences of K33/K11 ratio on viewing angle of display mode using a bend-alignment liquid-crystal cell with a compensator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461-1463 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Janning, "Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 173-174 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Sinha, B. Wen, and C. Rosenblatt, "Large, continuously controllable nematic pretilt from vertical orientation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2543-2545 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, "Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, "Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 243506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kim, K. C. Kim, H. J. Ahn, B. H. Hwang, J. T. Kim, S. J. Jo, C. S. Kim, H. K. Baik, C. J. Choi, M. K. Jo, Y. S. Kim, J. S. Park, and D. Kang, "No bias pi cell using a dual alignment layer with an intermediate pretilt angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 023507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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