Abstract

We have developed a full-field optical coherence microscopy system providing intensity-based tomographic images and spectroscopic information with ultrahigh spatial resolution. Local measurements of the backscattered light spectrum center of mass are achieved through short-time Fourier analysis of a stack of en face interferometric images acquired with a Linnik-type microscope. Using a halogen lamp as an illumination source enables us to achieve spectroscopic imaging over a wavelength range from 600 to 900 nm with a spatial resolution of ~1 µm. Absorption measurements of a colored gel are reported as a validation of the technique. Enhancement of tissue imaging contrast is demonstrated by imaging a Xenopus Laevis (African frog) tadpole ex vivo.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, and A. C. Boccara, "Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography in the 1.2 µm wavelength region," Opt. Commun. 266, 738-743 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, C. Vinegoni, T. S. Ralston, W. Luo, W. Tan, and S. A. Boppart, "Spectroscopic spectral-domain optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1079-1081 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

A. Dubois, "Effects of phase change on reflection in phase-measuring interference microscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 1503-1507 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hermann, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, H. Sattmann, L. Schmetterer, A. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Precision of extracting absorption profiles from weakly scattering media with spectroscopic time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 1677-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and A. C. Boccara, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 2874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. Ye, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Near-infrared dyes as contrast-enhancing agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29,1647-1649 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xu, D. Marks, M. Do, and S. Boppart, "Separation of absorption and scattering profiles in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography using a least-squares algorithm," Opt. Express 12, 4790-4803 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Adler, T. Ko, P. Herz, and J. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography contrast enhancement using spectroscopic analysis with spectral autocorrelation," Opt. Express 12, 5487-5501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Alders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1437-1439 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

1996

K. G. Larkin, "Efficient nonlinear algorithm for envelope detection in white light interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 832-843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, "Optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D.

Albrecht, H. J.

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alders, M. C. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Alders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1437-1439 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

Boccara, A. C.

Boccara, A.C.

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S.

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, P.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delacretaz, G. P.

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Do, M.

Drexler, W.

Dubois, A.

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, and A. C. Boccara, "Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography in the 1.2 µm wavelength region," Opt. Commun. 266, 738-743 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, A. C. Boccara, "In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6286-6295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Moneron, A. C. Boccara, and A. Dubois, "Stroboscopic ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 1351-1353 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, K. Grieve, G. Moneron, R. Lecaque, L. Vabre, and A. C. Boccara, "Ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 43, 2874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, "Effects of phase change on reflection in phase-measuring interference microscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 1503-1507 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vabre, A. Dubois, and A. C. Boccara, "Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 530-533 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Dubois, J. Selb, L. Vabre, and A. C. Boccara, "Phase measurements with wide-aperture interferometers," Appl. Opt. 39, 2326-2331 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Faber, D. J.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Alders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1437-1439 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography, Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieve, K.

Hee, M. R.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Herz, P.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Kärtner, F. X.

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Larkin, K. G.

Le Gargasson, J. F.

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, A. C. Boccara, "In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6286-6295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lecaque, R.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

Marks, D.

Marks, D. L.

Meier, T. H.

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mik, E. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Alders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1437-1439 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Moneron, G.

Morgner, U.

Paques, M.

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, A. C. Boccara, "In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6286-6295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralston, T. S.

Sahel, J.

K. Grieve, A. Dubois, M. Simonutti, M. Paques, J. Sahel, J. F. Le Gargasson, A. C. Boccara, "In vivo anterior segment imaging in the rat eye with high speed white light full-field optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 6286-6295 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

Schmetterer, L.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selb, J.

Simonutti, M.

Southern, J. F.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steiner, R. W.

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, W.

Tearney, G. J.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Vabre, L.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, E. G. Mik, M. C. G. Alders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, "Light absorption of (oxy-)hemoglobin assessed by spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1437-1439 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Vinegoni, C.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xu, C.

Ye, J.

Appl. Opt.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

K. Grieve, M. Paques, A. Dubois, J. Sahel, A.C. Boccara, J. F. Le Gargasson, "Ocular tissue imaging using ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 45, 4126-4131 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. F. Fercher, "Optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature Med.

J. G. Fujimoto, M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. R. Hee, J. F. Southern, and E. A. Swanson, "Optical biopsy and imaging using optical coherence tomography," Nature Med. 1, 970 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. Dubois, G. Moneron, and A. C. Boccara, "Thermal-light full-field optical coherence tomography in the 1.2 µm wavelength region," Opt. Commun. 266, 738-743 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. P. Delacretaz, R. W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, H. J. Albrecht, and T. H. Meier, "Epidermal melanin absorption in human skin," in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics, Proc. SPIE 2624, 143-154 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental arrangement of spectroscopic full-field optical coherence microscopy. BS: beam splitter (broadband, nonpolarizing), MO: microscope objectives (water-immersion, 10x, 0.3 NA), L: achromatic doublet lens (500 mm focal length). DCP: dispersion compensation plates. The object is translated in the axial direction in steps of 35 nm using a piezoelectric (PZT) translation stage. The reference mirror has a reflectivity of ~2%.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Left: experimental arrangement for absorption measurement validation using spectroscopic FF-OCM. An Agarose gel colored with blue ink is placed between a microscope slide and a cover-slip. The wedge-shaped gel acts as an absorbing medium with variable thickness. Right: typical transmission spectrum of the blue ink measured by conventional spectrometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectroscopic FF-OCM measurement (red) and calculation (blue) of the spectrum center of mass shift of light reflected by a glass plate after passing twice through an Agarose gel colored with blue ink (experiment depicted in Fig. 2). The scale factor of the x-axis is included in the fitting parameter K [see Eq. (4)].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity (A) and combined intensity/spectroscopic (B) full-field optical coherence microscopy images of an ex vivo Xenopus Laevis tadpole embryo. The center of mass of the optical spectra is used as the spectroscopic metric. White arrows indicate the presence of melanocytes, more visible in the combined intensity/spectroscopic image due to a spectral shift of ~35 nm.

Equations (6)

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I k = ( E k + 2 E k + 6 ) 2 ( E k E k + 4 ) ( E k + 4 E k + 8 ) , k = 1 , , ( N 8 ) .
S ( λ ) = S illum ( λ ) × T z , c 2 ( λ ) ,
T z , c ( λ ) = exp [ ε ( λ ) zc ] .
T z , c ( λ ) = exp { Kz ln [ T z 0 , c 0 ( λ ) ] }
K = c z 0 c 0 .
δλ = 0 λ S ( λ ) 0 S ( λ ) λ 0 .

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