Abstract

Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) was assessed as a nondestructive evaluation technique for aircraft composites. Damage to glass fiber was studied including voids, delaminations, mechanical damage, and heat damage. Measurement of the material properties on samples with localized heat damage showed that burning did not change the refractive index or absorption coefficient noticeably; however, material blistering was detected. Voids were located by TDS transmissive imaging using amplitude and phase techniques. The depth of delaminations was measured via the timing of Fabry-Perot reflections after the main pulse. Evidence of bending stress damage and simulated hidden cracks was also detected with terahertz imaging.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, "Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Myroshnychenko and C. Brosseau, "Effective complex permittivity of two-phase random composite media: a test of the two exponent phenomenological percolation equation," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, "Scattering by a dense layer of infinite cylinders at normal incidence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1022-1029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Naftaly and R. Miles, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, Dai De Chang, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain "Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: an alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,"J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

2006

A. Cooney and J. Blackshire, "Advanced imaging of hidden damage under aircraft coatings," Proc. SPIE 617902, 1-11 (2006).

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Reiten, L. Hess, and R. Cheville, "Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic materials using terahertz impulse ranging," Proc. SPIE 617905, 1-8 (2006).

J. Baxter and C. Schmuttenmaer, "Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25229-25239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. J. Chau, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Terahertz propagation in non-homogeneous strongly scattering media," Proc. SPIE 5727, 177-185 (2005).

E. Tuncer, N. Bowler, and I. J. Youngs, "Application of the spectral density function method to a composite system," Physica B 373, 306-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Wang and X. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Appl. Phys. D 37R1-R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Pearce and D. Mittleman, "Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3823-3830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1935

D. Bruggeman, "Dielektrizitatskonstanten und Leitfahigkeiten der Mischkorper aus isotropen Substanzen," Ann. Phys. 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Bastian, M.

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

Baudrit, B.

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

Baxter, J.

J. Baxter and C. Schmuttenmaer, "Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25229-25239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blackshire, J.

A. Cooney and J. Blackshire, "Advanced imaging of hidden damage under aircraft coatings," Proc. SPIE 617902, 1-11 (2006).

Bowler, N.

E. Tuncer, N. Bowler, and I. J. Youngs, "Application of the spectral density function method to a composite system," Physica B 373, 306-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, C.

V. Myroshnychenko and C. Brosseau, "Effective complex permittivity of two-phase random composite media: a test of the two exponent phenomenological percolation equation," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D.

D. Bruggeman, "Dielektrizitatskonstanten und Leitfahigkeiten der Mischkorper aus isotropen Substanzen," Ann. Phys. 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W.

W. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chau, K. J.

K. J. Chau, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Terahertz propagation in non-homogeneous strongly scattering media," Proc. SPIE 5727, 177-185 (2005).

Cheville, R.

M. Reiten, L. Hess, and R. Cheville, "Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic materials using terahertz impulse ranging," Proc. SPIE 617905, 1-8 (2006).

Cooney, A.

A. Cooney and J. Blackshire, "Advanced imaging of hidden damage under aircraft coatings," Proc. SPIE 617902, 1-11 (2006).

Dai De Chang, G. P.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, Dai De Chang, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain "Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: an alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,"J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J.

W. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

K. J. Chau, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Terahertz propagation in non-homogeneous strongly scattering media," Proc. SPIE 5727, 177-185 (2005).

Ewert, U.

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, J. R.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, Dai De Chang, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain "Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: an alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,"J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasek, T.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L.

M. Reiten, L. Hess, and R. Cheville, "Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic materials using terahertz impulse ranging," Proc. SPIE 617905, 1-8 (2006).

Jansen, C.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jordens, C.

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

Khare, S.

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostman, T.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, R.

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

Kurner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Miles, R.

M. Naftaly and R. Miles, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

W. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Pearce and D. Mittleman, "Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3823-3830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pearce and D. Mittleman, "Propagation of single-cycle terahertz pulses in random media," Opt. Lett. 26, 2002-2004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moneke, M.

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mujumdar, S.

K. J. Chau, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Terahertz propagation in non-homogeneous strongly scattering media," Proc. SPIE 5727, 177-185 (2005).

Myroshnychenko, V.

V. Myroshnychenko and C. Brosseau, "Effective complex permittivity of two-phase random composite media: a test of the two exponent phenomenological percolation equation," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

M. Naftaly and R. Miles, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, J.

J. Pearce and D. Mittleman, "Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3823-3830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pearce and D. Mittleman, "Propagation of single-cycle terahertz pulses in random media," Opt. Lett. 26, 2002-2004 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, "Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reiten, M.

M. Reiten, L. Hess, and R. Cheville, "Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic materials using terahertz impulse ranging," Proc. SPIE 617905, 1-8 (2006).

Richter, H.

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rutz, F.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C.

J. Baxter and C. Schmuttenmaer, "Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25229-25239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, "Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swift, G. P.

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, Dai De Chang, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain "Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: an alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,"J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, "Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuncer, E.

E. Tuncer, N. Bowler, and I. J. Youngs, "Application of the spectral density function method to a composite system," Physica B 373, 306-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang and X. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Appl. Phys. D 37R1-R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wietzke, S.

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I. J.

E. Tuncer, N. Bowler, and I. J. Youngs, "Application of the spectral density function method to a composite system," Physica B 373, 306-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang and X. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Appl. Phys. D 37R1-R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys.

D. Bruggeman, "Dielektrizitatskonstanten und Leitfahigkeiten der Mischkorper aus isotropen Substanzen," Ann. Phys. 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, P. F. Taday, and M. Pepper, "Elimination of scattering effects in spectral measurement of granulated materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop.

R. Piesiewicz, C. Jansen, D. Mittleman, T. Kleine-Ostman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Scattering analysis for the modeling of thz communication systems," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop. 55, 3002-3009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

F. Rutz, R. Koch, S. Khare, M. Moneke, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz quality control of polymeric products," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 547-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Myroshnychenko and C. Brosseau, "Effective complex permittivity of two-phase random composite media: a test of the two exponent phenomenological percolation equation," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. Miles, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of silicate glasses and the relationship to material properties," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fletcher, G. P. Swift, Dai De Chang, J. A. Levitt, and J. M. Chamberlain "Propagation of terahertz radiation through random structures: an alternative theoretical approach and experimental validation,"J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. D

S. Wang and X. Zhang, "Pulsed terahertz tomography," J. Appl. Phys. D 37R1-R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Euro. Opt. Soc.

S. Wietzke, C. Jordens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 2, 07013 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. Baxter and C. Schmuttenmaer, "Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25229-25239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

J. Pearce and D. Mittleman, "Scale model experimentation: using terahertz pulses to study light scattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3823-3830 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Physica B

E. Tuncer, N. Bowler, and I. J. Youngs, "Application of the spectral density function method to a composite system," Physica B 373, 306-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Test.

S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, F. Rutz, D. Mittleman, and M. Koch, "Determination of additive content in polymeric compounds with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Polym. Test. 26, 614-618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. Cooney and J. Blackshire, "Advanced imaging of hidden damage under aircraft coatings," Proc. SPIE 617902, 1-11 (2006).

M. Reiten, L. Hess, and R. Cheville, "Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic materials using terahertz impulse ranging," Proc. SPIE 617905, 1-8 (2006).

K. J. Chau, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Terahertz propagation in non-homogeneous strongly scattering media," Proc. SPIE 5727, 177-185 (2005).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

W. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. Mittleman, "Imaging with terahertz radiation," Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1325-1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Redo-Sanchez, N. Karpowicz, J. Xu, and X. C. Zhang, "Damage and defect inspection with terahertz waves," presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, UMass Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, MA, 19 June 2006.

D. Zimdars, J. White, G. Stuk, A. Chernovsky, G. Fichter, and S. Williamson, "Large area terahertz imaging and non-destructive evaluation applications," presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Ultrasonic and Advanced Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Material Characterization, UMass Dartmouth, N. Dartmouth, MA, 19 June 2006.

D. Mittleman, "Terahertz imaging," in Sensing with Terahertz Radiation, D. Mittleman, ed. (Springer, New York, NY 2003).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA 1969).

D. Aspnes, "The accurate determination of optical properties by ellipsometry," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. Palik, ed. (Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL 1985).

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