Abstract

Output power fluctuations in a grating external cavity diode laser with Littman configuration are described, showing peculiar chaotic behaviors of self-pulsation at the L-I curve kink points. Different spectral characteristics with multiple peaks are observed at upper and lower state of the self-pulsation. It is found also that P-N junction voltage jumps in a same pace with the pulsation. The observed phenomena reflect competition between different longitudinal modes, and transient variation of transverse modes in addition. These experimental results may contain information about the mechanisms of the chaotic instability in strong filtered feedback semiconductor lasers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. den Boef, "Coherence collapse in single-mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 674-679 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Tkach and A. Chraplyvy, "Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1655-1661 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, "Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-108 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Hohl, H. van der Linden, and R. Roy, "Determinism and stochasticity of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback," Opt. Lett. 20, 2396-2398 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Hohl and A. Gavrielides, "Bifurcation Cascade in a Semiconductor Laser Subject to Optical Feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1148-1151 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Detoma, B. Tromborg, and I. Montrosset, "Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback," Proc. SPIE 5452, 283-290 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Führer and T. Walther, "Extension of the mode-hop-free tuning range of an external cavity diode laser based on a model of the mode-hop dynamics," Opt. Lett. 33, 372-374 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Green and B. Krauskopf, "Bifurcation analysis of a multi-transverse-mode VCSEL," Proc. SPIE 6997, 69970O1-9 (2008).
  11. T. Paoli, "Nonlinearities in the emission characteristics of stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double- heterostructure junction lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 770-776 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Chinone, "Nonlinearity in power-output-current characteristics of stripe-geometry injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3237-3243 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Zachos and J. Ripper, "Resonant Modes of GaAs Junction Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 29-37 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kressel and J. Butler, Semiconductor lasers and hetero-junction LEDs (Academic Press, 1977), Chapter 5, p. 172.
  15. Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1216-1225 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

E. Detoma, B. Tromborg, and I. Montrosset, "Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback," Proc. SPIE 5452, 283-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Hohl and A. Gavrielides, "Bifurcation Cascade in a Semiconductor Laser Subject to Optical Feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1148-1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (2)

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, "Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. Tkach and A. Chraplyvy, "Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1655-1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. den Boef, "Coherence collapse in single-mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 674-679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

N. Chinone, "Nonlinearity in power-output-current characteristics of stripe-geometry injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3237-3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

T. Paoli, "Nonlinearities in the emission characteristics of stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double- heterostructure junction lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 770-776 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

T. Zachos and J. Ripper, "Resonant Modes of GaAs Junction Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 29-37 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chinone, N.

N. Chinone, "Nonlinearity in power-output-current characteristics of stripe-geometry injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3237-3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A.

R. Tkach and A. Chraplyvy, "Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1655-1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

den Boef, A.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. den Boef, "Coherence collapse in single-mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 674-679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Detoma, E.

E. Detoma, B. Tromborg, and I. Montrosset, "Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback," Proc. SPIE 5452, 283-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Führer, T.

Gavrielides, A.

A. Hohl and A. Gavrielides, "Bifurcation Cascade in a Semiconductor Laser Subject to Optical Feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1148-1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hohl, A.

A. Hohl and A. Gavrielides, "Bifurcation Cascade in a Semiconductor Laser Subject to Optical Feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1148-1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohl, H. van der Linden, and R. Roy, "Determinism and stochasticity of power-dropout events in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback," Opt. Lett. 20, 2396-2398 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. den Boef, "Coherence collapse in single-mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 674-679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mark, J.

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, "Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuhashi, Y.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mitsutsuka, S.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Montrosset, I.

E. Detoma, B. Tromborg, and I. Montrosset, "Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback," Proc. SPIE 5452, 283-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, "Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, T.

T. Paoli, "Nonlinearities in the emission characteristics of stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double- heterostructure junction lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 770-776 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ripper, J.

T. Zachos and J. Ripper, "Resonant Modes of GaAs Junction Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 29-37 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

Shimada, J.

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R.

R. Tkach and A. Chraplyvy, "Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1655-1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tromborg, B.

E. Detoma, B. Tromborg, and I. Montrosset, "Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback," Proc. SPIE 5452, 283-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, "Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, H.

Velichansky, V.

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. den Boef, "Coherence collapse in single-mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 674-679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Walther, T.

Zachos, T.

T. Zachos and J. Ripper, "Resonant Modes of GaAs Junction Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 29-37 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, "External Optical Feedback Effects on Semiconductor Injection Laser Properties," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347-355 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. den Boef, "Coherence collapse in single-mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 674-679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, and J. Mark, "Chaos in semiconductor lasers with optical feedback: Theory and experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 93-108 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Paoli, "Nonlinearities in the emission characteristics of stripe-geometry (AlGa)As double- heterostructure junction lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 770-776 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Zachos and J. Ripper, "Resonant Modes of GaAs Junction Lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 29-37 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mitsuhashi, J. Shimada, and S. Mitsutsuka, "Voltage change across the self-coupled semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1216-1225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Chinone, "Nonlinearity in power-output-current characteristics of stripe-geometry injection lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3237-3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Tkach and A. Chraplyvy, "Regimes of feedback effects in 1.5-um distributed feedback lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1655-1661 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Hohl and A. Gavrielides, "Bifurcation Cascade in a Semiconductor Laser Subject to Optical Feedback," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1148-1151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Detoma, B. Tromborg, and I. Montrosset, "Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback," Proc. SPIE 5452, 283-290 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc.SPIE (1)

J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, J. Mark, and V. Velichansky, "Instabilities in a laser diode with strong optical feedback," Proc.SPIE 1837, 90-104 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Green and B. Krauskopf, "Bifurcation analysis of a multi-transverse-mode VCSEL," Proc. SPIE 6997, 69970O1-9 (2008).

H. Kressel and J. Butler, Semiconductor lasers and hetero-junction LEDs (Academic Press, 1977), Chapter 5, p. 172.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic diagram of the external cavity laser with Littman configuration.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A typical L-I curve of the ECDL with three dips.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Self-pulsation waveforms with different time scales: (a) 100ms/div, (b) 20ms/div, (c) 2ms/div, (d) 500µs/div, (e) 50µs/div, (f) 10ms/div.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Self-pulsation waveforms at the second kink: (a) and (b) for two injection currents with difference around 1mA. Time scale: 100ms/div.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a), (b) Spectrum at upper and lower output levels measured by a scanning F-P etalon (c) Spectrum at injection current region out-of the kinks, with an inclined line of scanning voltage.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Far-field patterns for upper(a) and lower(b) output level at kinks. (c) Difference between patterns (a) and (b). (d) Difference between far-field patterns outside the kinks.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Junction voltage (upper blue) and power (lower pink) fluctuations.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Junction voltage (red triangle) and power (black square) varied with injection current.

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