Abstract

Mechanism of terahertz (THz) pulse generation in gases irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses is investigated theoretically. Quasi-static transverse currents produced by laser field ionization of gases and the longitudinal modulation in formed plasmas are responsible for the THz emission at the electron plasma frequency, as demonstrated by particle-in-cell simulations including field ionization. The THz field amplitude scales linearly with the laser amplitude, which, however, holds only when the latter is at a moderate level. To overcome this limitation, we propose a scheme using chirped laser pulses irradiating on tenuous gas or plasma targets, which can generate THz pulses with amplitude 10–100 times larger than that from the well-known two-color laser scheme, enabling one to obtain THz field up to 10MV/cm with incident laser at ~1016W/cm2.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Sherwin, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, and P. H. Bucksbaum, DOE-NSF-NIH Workshop on Opportunities in THz Science (http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/THz rpt.pdf).
  2. B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, K. Li, and J. Zhang, "Terahertz radiation from the vacuum-plasma interface driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 025401(R)/1-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z.-M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, "Emission of Electromagnetic Pulses from LaserWakefields through Linear Mode Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 095003/1-4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air," Opt. Lett. 25, 1210-1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kress, T. Loffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).
  11. Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. M. Sheng, "Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses," New J. Phys. 10, 043001/1-10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).
  16. B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, "Residual energy in plasmas produced by intense subpicosecond lasers," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100-3113 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).
  18. R. Nuter, S. Skupin, and L. Berge, "Chirp-induced dynamics of femtosecond filaments in air," Opt. Lett. 30, 917-919 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W.-M. Wang and C.-Y. Zheng, "The evolution of the transverse centroid of asymmetric laser field in plasmas with various density distributions," Phys. Plasmas 13, 053112/1-7 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, "Residual energy in plasmas produced by intense subpicosecond lasers," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100-3113 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Akturk, S.

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Bardsley, J. N.

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, "Residual energy in plasmas produced by intense subpicosecond lasers," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100-3113 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartel, T.

Berge, L.

Chen, M.

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

D???Amico, C.

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Falcone, R.W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faure, J.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Gaal, P.

Geddes, C. G. R.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guzdar, P.

G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Houard, A.

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

King, B. T.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Kress, M.

Lee, Y. C.

G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Leemans, W. P.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, K. Li, and J. Zhang, "Terahertz radiation from the vacuum-plasma interface driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 025401(R)/1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loffler, T.

Ma, Y.-Y.

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

H. C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. M. Sheng, "Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses," New J. Phys. 10, 043001/1-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

Z.-M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, "Emission of Electromagnetic Pulses from LaserWakefields through Linear Mode Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 095003/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuter, R.

Ott, E.

G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Penetrante, B. M.

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, "Residual energy in plasmas produced by intense subpicosecond lasers," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100-3113 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H. G.

Sanuki, H.

Z.-M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, "Emission of Electromagnetic Pulses from LaserWakefields through Linear Mode Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 095003/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z. M.

H. C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. M. Sheng, "Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses," New J. Phys. 10, 043001/1-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.-M.

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

Z.-M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, "Emission of Electromagnetic Pulses from LaserWakefields through Linear Mode Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 095003/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, K. Li, and J. Zhang, "Terahertz radiation from the vacuum-plasma interface driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 025401(R)/1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M. S.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

Stanley, C. R.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, G.-Z.

G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomson, M.

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Wang, W.-M.

W.-M. Wang and C.-Y. Zheng, "The evolution of the transverse centroid of asymmetric laser field in plasmas with various density distributions," Phys. Plasmas 13, 053112/1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. B.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

Wu, H. C.

H. C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. M. Sheng, "Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses," New J. Phys. 10, 043001/1-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-C.

Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, K. Li, and J. Zhang, "Terahertz radiation from the vacuum-plasma interface driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 025401(R)/1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, K. Li, and J. Zhang, "Terahertz radiation from the vacuum-plasma interface driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 025401(R)/1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z.-M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, "Emission of Electromagnetic Pulses from LaserWakefields through Linear Mode Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 095003/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C.-Y.

W.-M. Wang and C.-Y. Zheng, "The evolution of the transverse centroid of asymmetric laser field in plasmas with various density distributions," Phys. Plasmas 13, 053112/1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

Chin. J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. Chen, Z.-M. Sheng, J. Zheng, Y.-Y. Ma, and J. Zhang, "Developments and applications of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell codes in the investigation of laser plasma interactions," Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 25, 43-50 (2008).

Nature (London) (1)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60-63 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Fluids (1)

G.-Z. Sun, E. Ott, Y. C. Lee, and P. Guzdar, "Self-focusing of short intense pulses in plasmas," Phys. Fluids 30, 526-532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. M. Penetrante and J. N. Bardsley, "Residual energy in plasmas produced by intense subpicosecond lasers," Phys. Rev. A 43, 3100-3113 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R.W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Other (9)

M. S. Sherwin, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, and P. H. Bucksbaum, DOE-NSF-NIH Workshop on Opportunities in THz Science (http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/THz rpt.pdf).

H. C. Wu, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and Z. M. Sheng, "Phase-sensitive terahertz emission from gas targets irradiated by few-cycle laser pulses," New J. Phys. 10, 043001/1-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-M. Wang and C.-Y. Zheng, "The evolution of the transverse centroid of asymmetric laser field in plasmas with various density distributions," Phys. Plasmas 13, 053112/1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. D�??Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002/1-4 (2007).

Y. Liu, A. Houard, B. Prade, S. Akturk, A. Mysyrowicz, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Terahertz Radiation Source in Air Based on Bifilamentation of Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135002/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, K. Li, and J. Zhang, "Terahertz radiation from the vacuum-plasma interface driven by ultrashort intense laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 69, 025401(R)/1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z.-M. Sheng, K. Mima, J. Zhang, and H. Sanuki, "Emission of Electromagnetic Pulses from LaserWakefields through Linear Mode Conversion," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 095003/1-4 (2005).
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W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spacial distribution of transverse currents in a preformed plasma (a) at t=60T 0 and in a H 2 target at t=60T 0 (b) and t=400T 0 (c), respectively. A two-color laser with a 1=0.06 and Lgas =400λ 0 are taken.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)Temporal and spacial distribution of THz pulses from a H 2 gas target with the density ngas =1.25×10-5 nc . Waveforms (b) and spectra (c) of THz pulses from H 2 targets with different initial gas densities. A two-color laser with a 1=0.06 is taken.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a)THz pulse amplitude as a function of a 1. Frames (b)–(e) show the number of new born electrons produced via laser field ionization against the laser propagation coordinate x-ct for different a 1 and a 2=a 1/2. Two-color lasers and a H 2 target are taken.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)THz pulse amplitude as a function of the chirped laser amplitude for two different chirping parameters, where the electron density is 2.5×10-5 nc ; (b)Spacial distribution of THz pulses simulated by 2D PIC, where the electron density is 4×10-4 nc and a chirped laser pulse with a 0=0.1, the transverse radius of 8λ 0, and C=-0.024 is used. Plasma targets are taken.

Equations (6)

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v t = a L t ,
v = j = 1 N v , j N = a L a L ( x 0 , t 0 ) ,
( 2 x 2 2 c 2 t 2 ) δ a = ω p 2 c 2 [ δ a a L ( x 0 , t 0 ) ] ,
δ a = a L ( x 0 , t 0 ) [ cos ( ω p τ ) 1 ]
+ a L ( x 0 , t 0 ) [ cos ( ω p τ ) 1 ] L 1 { exp [ ξ 2 c ( s ω p 2 s ) ] } ,
ε L = a 0 sin [ k 0 ξ ( 1 + C ξ ) ] sin ( π ξ L t C ) ,

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