Abstract

We report on the first real-time implementation of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system using entangled photon pairs that are sent over two free-space optical telescope links. The entangled photon pairs are produced with a type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion source placed in a central, potentially untrusted, location. The two free-space links cover a distance of 435 m and 1,325 m respectively, producing a total separation of 1,575 m. The system relies on passive polarization analysis units, GPS timing receivers for synchronization, and custom written software to perform the complete QKD protocol including error correction and privacy amplification. Over 6.5 hours during the night, we observed an average raw key generation rate of 565 bits/s, an average quantum bit error rate (QBER) of 4.92%, and an average secure key generation rate of 85 bits/s.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-Shift Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 73 (2007).

G. Weihs and C. Erven, "Entangled Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution," Proc. SPIE 6780, 1-9 (2007).

2006 (1)

I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with Entangled Photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, "Ground to Satellite Secure Key Exchange using Quantum Cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Sugimoto and K. Yamazaki, "A Study on Secret Key Reconciliation Protocol "Cascade," IEICE Trans. FundamentalsE 83ANo. 10, 1987 (2000).

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-Key Reconciliation by Public Discussion," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 765, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, "Quantum Cryptography without Bell�??s Theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. Wiesner, "Conjugate Coding," Sigact News 15, 78-88 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. L. Carter and M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, "Quantum Cryptography without Bell�??s Theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bohm, H.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-Key Reconciliation by Public Discussion," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 765, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, "Quantum Cryptography without Bell�??s Theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, J. L.

J. L. Carter and M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Erven, C.

G. Weihs and C. Erven, "Entangled Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution," Proc. SPIE 6780, 1-9 (2007).

Fedrizzi, A.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, F.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fung, C. H.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-Shift Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 73 (2007).

Gorman, P. M.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, "Ground to Satellite Secure Key Exchange using Quantum Cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, X.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, "Ground to Satellite Secure Key Exchange using Quantum Cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with Entangled Photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamas-Linares, A.

I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with Entangled Photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leeb, W.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindenthal, M.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H. K.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-Shift Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 73 (2007).

Ma, X.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-Shift Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 73 (2007).

Marcikic, I.

I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with Entangled Photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mattle, K.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, "Quantum Cryptography without Bell�??s Theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdigues, J.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pfennigbauer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poppe, A.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-Shift Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 73 (2007).

Rarity, J. G.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, "Ground to Satellite Secure Key Exchange using Quantum Cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Resch, K.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salvail, L.

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-Key Reconciliation by Public Discussion," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 765, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scheidl, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Manderback, T.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y.

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, T.

T. Sugimoto and K. Yamazaki, "A Study on Secret Key Reconciliation Protocol "Cascade," IEICE Trans. FundamentalsE 83ANo. 10, 1987 (2000).

Tapster, P. R.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, "Ground to Satellite Secure Key Exchange using Quantum Cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taraba, M.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiefenbacher, F.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trojek, P.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walther, P.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wegman, M. N.

J. L. Carter and M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Weier, H.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

G. Weihs and C. Erven, "Entangled Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution," Proc. SPIE 6780, 1-9 (2007).

Weinfurter, H.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiesner, S.

S. Wiesner, "Conjugate Coding," Sigact News 15, 78-88 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, K.

T. Sugimoto and K. Yamazaki, "A Study on Secret Key Reconciliation Protocol "Cascade," IEICE Trans. FundamentalsE 83ANo. 10, 1987 (2000).

Yang, B.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, J.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhiang, Q.

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Marcikic, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, "Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution with Entangled Photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E (1)

T. Sugimoto and K. Yamazaki, "A Study on Secret Key Reconciliation Protocol "Cascade," IEICE Trans. FundamentalsE 83ANo. 10, 1987 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-Distance Quantum Communication With Entangled Photons Using Satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 1541 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Syst. Sci. (1)

J. L. Carter and M. N. Wegman, "Universal Classes of Hash Functions," J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 18, 143 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (1)

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-Key Reconciliation by Public Discussion," Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 765, 410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Omer, M. Furst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Entanglement-Based Quantum Communication Over 144km," Nat. Phys. 3, 481-486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, "Ground to Satellite Secure Key Exchange using Quantum Cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Bohm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderback, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing Entanglement and Single Photons Through an Intra-City Free-Space Quantum Channel," Opt. Exp. 13, 202 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. Peng, T. Yang, X. Bao, J. Zhang, X. Jin, F. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhiang, N. Li, B. Tian, and J. W. Pan, "Experimental Free-Space Distribution of Entangled Photon pairs Over 13km: Towards Satellite-Based Global Quantum Communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, "New High-Intensity Source of Polarization-Entangled Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, "Quantum Cryptography without Bell�??s Theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Weihs and C. Erven, "Entangled Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution," Proc. SPIE 6780, 1-9 (2007).

Quant. Info. Comput. (1)

B. Qi, C. H. Fung, H. K. Lo, and X. Ma, "Time-Shift Attack in Practical Quantum Cryptosystems," Quant. Info. Comput. 7, 73 (2007).

Sigact News (1)

S. Wiesner, "Conjugate Coding," Sigact News 15, 78-88 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing, (New York, 1984) p. 175.
[PubMed]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, "A Framework for Practical Quantum Cryptography," http://arxiv.org/abs/0802.4155 (2008).

X. Ma and H. K. Lo, Centre for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, 10 King�??s College Road, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G4, Canada, (personal communication, 2008).

X. Ma, C. H. Fung, and H. K. Lo, "Quantum Key Distribution With Entangled Photon Sources," http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0703122 (2007).

J. Hasegawa, M. Hayashi, T. Hiroshima, A. Tanaka, and A. Tomita, "Experimental Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Unconditional Security Incorporating Finite Statistics," http://arxiv.org/abs/0705.3081 (2007).

N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. L¨utkenhaus, "Squashing Models for Optical Measurements in Quantum Communication," http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.3082 (2008).

T. Tsurumaru and K. Tamaki, "Security Proof for QKD Systems with Threshold Detectors," http://arxiv.org/abs/0803.4226 (2008).

M. Koashi, Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, and N. Imoto, "Security of Entanglement-Based Quantum Key Distribution with Practical Detectors," http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.0891 (2008).

N. Lutkenhaus, Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada, (personal communication, 2008).

NIST, "NIST Timing Software,"http://tf.nist.gov/service/its.htm (2008).

For more complete details about the system please refer to [22] and [23].

C. Erven, "On Free Space Quantum Key Distribution and its Implementation with a Polarization-Entangled Parametric Down Conversion Source," Master�??s thesis, University of Waterloo (2007).

J. Perdigues, B. Furch, C. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum Communications at ESA - Towards a Space Experiment on the ISS," in 58th International Astronautical Congress (Hyderabad, India, 2007).

R. All�??eaume, J. Bouda, C. Branciard, T. Debuisschert, M. Dianati, N. Gisin, M. Godfrey, P. Grangier, T. L¨anger, A. Leverrier, N. L¨utkenhaus, P. Painchault, M. Peev, A. Poppe, T. Pornin, J. Rarity, R. Renner, G. Ribordy, M. Riguidel, L. Salvail, A. Shields, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography," http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0701168 (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schematic of the entangled photon source, free-space link optics, and the passive polarization detection optics. Polarization entangled photons are generated via type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a β -BBO nonlinear optical crystal pumped by a blue diode laser. Walk off effects are mitigated with a half waveplate and compensator crystal in each arm. Optional polarizers allow the measurement of the local source visibilities. The entangled photons are coupled into singlemode fibers and transported to sender telescopes where they are then sent over a free-space link and collected with receiver telescopes. The photon polarizations are then measured in a passive polarization detector box which uses a 50/50 beamsplitter to perform the basis choice and the proper combination of half waveplates and polarizing beamsplitters to perform the polarization measurement in the correct basis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Map of the QKD setup showing the University of Waterlo and Perimeter Institute campuses with the source located in the CEIT building, Alice located 435 m away in an office at the BFG building, and Bob located 1,325 m away in an office at PI. Courtesy of Google Earth and Tele Atlas. Map Data © Tele Atlas 2008

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

QBER over the course of the experiment. The total QBER is shown in blue, the Z errors are shown in red, and the X errors are shown in green. We observed an average total QBER of 4.92% during the night. Data taken on April 28, 2008.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Key Rates over the course of the experiment. The raw key rate is shown in blue, the sifted key rate is shown in red, the maximum potential final key rate using error correction algorithms operating at the Shannon limit is shown in green, and the actual observed final key rate is shown in magenta. During the experiment we observed average rates of 565 bits/s for the raw key, 284 bits/s for the sifted key, 124 bits/s for the optimum final key, and 85 bits/s for the actual final key. Data taken on April 28, 2008.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The visibility of the source in the rectilinear (H/V) basis shown in blue and diagonal basis (+45°/-45°) shown in green over the course of the experiment. The average visibilities of the two bases recorded during the night were 88.6% and 91.7% respectively. Data taken on April 28, 2008.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Detection Rates for each of Alice’s and Bob’s detectors including an estimated breakdown of events due to background light, dark counts of the detectors, and photons received from the source.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Reconstructed coincidence matrix for Alice and Bob from the experiment. Also shown are the entangled photon detection totals for each of Alice’s and Bob’s four detectors.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Classical communication load in bytes/s for the different classical communication tasks needed by the software in order to perform the BBM92 protocol.

Tables Icon

Table 4. Data for different experimental free-space link setups.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N sec ure = N raw ( 1 h 2 ( QBER ) ) N leakage N safety
k sec ure = ( m · k corrected + n ) mod p
p 0 1 = N 0 1 N 0 + N 1
N sec ure = N raw ( 1 h 2 ( QBER ) h 2 ( p 0 ) ) N leakage N safety

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