Abstract

A thermally stable polymeric optical waveguide has been fabricated using ultraviolet (UV)-curable epoxy resins for the core and clad materials. A simple and cost-effective fabrication method that uses reusable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) masters has been developed. The 12-channel under-clad layer of the UV-cured epoxy was prepared using a PDMS master whose embossed channels had been fabricated by a polycarbonate (PC) secondary master. The thermal stability of the fabricated waveguide was tested at 200 °C for one hour. The optical waveguide was not damaged physically by thermal stress. Propagation losses detected by a cut-back method were 0.16 dB/cm and 0.26 dB/cm, respectively, before and after the thermal stability test at 850 nm. Loss increase after the thermal treatment can be attributed to the formation of the absorbing and scattering sources. This waveguide can be applied for areas that require thermal stability such as an optical printed-circuit board.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.
  2. L. Eldada, “Advances in polymer optical interconnects,” Invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005, (Academic, Sydney, 2005), 361–362.
  3. T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymeric waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 5843–5850 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.
  5. S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, Monterey, 1998), pp. 35–36.
  6. W. Ni, J. Wu, and X. Wu, “Crossing and branching nodes in soft-lithography-based optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 12872–12881 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.
  9. I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, “Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method,” in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 2, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274–276.
  11. W. Chuang, C. Ho, and W. Chang, “Fabrication of polymer waveguides by a replication method,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8304–8307 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.
  13. L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  14. D.-W. Kim, T.-W. Lee, M. H. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “High-efficiency and stable optical transmitter using VCSEL-direct-bonded connector for optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 15, 15767–15775 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.
  16. L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

W. Ni, J. Wu, and X. Wu, “Crossing and branching nodes in soft-lithography-based optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 12872–12881 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymeric waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15, 5843–5850 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

D.-W. Kim, T.-W. Lee, M. H. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “High-efficiency and stable optical transmitter using VCSEL-direct-bonded connector for optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 15, 15767–15775 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Eldada, “Advances in polymer optical interconnects,” Invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005, (Academic, Sydney, 2005), 361–362.

2004 (3)

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, “Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method,” in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 2, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274–276.

2003 (1)

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.

1999 (2)

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

1998 (1)

S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, Monterey, 1998), pp. 35–36.

1996 (1)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. H.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Amano, M.

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

Bapst, U.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Bauer, J.

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.

Berger, C.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Bernussi, A. A.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beyeler, R.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Bona, G.-.L

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Borhani, M. M.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.-K.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

Cho, H. S

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, I. -K.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cho, I.-K.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, M. H.

Chu, K-M

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chuang, W.

Dangel, R.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Daniel, R.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

de Peralta, L. G.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dellmann, L.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Doucette, D. E.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ebling, F.

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, “Advances in polymer optical interconnects,” Invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005, (Academic, Sydney, 2005), 361–362.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

Enbutsu, K.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

Gmur, M.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Hamelin, R.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Hegde, S. G.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heo, Y. U.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hikita, M.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

Ho, C.

Horst, F.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Hwang, S. H.

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Imamura, S.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, Monterey, 1998), pp. 35–36.

Imamura, Saburo

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

Ishigure, T.

Jeong, M. Y.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jeong, M.-Y.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kang, S. K.

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, J.-J.

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-S.

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, “Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method,” in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 2, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274–276.

Kim, W. H.

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lamprecht, T.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Lee, D. J.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.-W.

Lee, W.-J.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maruno, T.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

Meier, N.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Morf, T.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Ni, W.

Offrein, B.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

Offrein, B. J.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Oggioni, S.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Oh, J. H.

M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, “Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method,” in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 2, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274–276.

Park, H.-H.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
[Crossref]

D.-W. Kim, T.-W. Lee, M. H. Cho, and H.-H. Park, “High-efficiency and stable optical transmitter using VCSEL-direct-bonded connector for optical interconnection,” Opt. Express 15, 15767–15775 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rhee, B.-H.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rho, B. S.

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Scheel, W.

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.

Schröder, H.

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.

Shakelette, L. W.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sitaraman, S. K.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
[Crossref]

Spreafico, M.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Stengel, K. M. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stevens, R.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

Takeyoshi, Y.

Temkin, H.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tohno, S.

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

Tomaru, S.

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

Usui, M.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Xu, C.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yardley, J. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J. W.

M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, “Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method,” in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 2, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274–276.

Yoon, K. B.

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, “Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874–879 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, “Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410–412 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging (1)

H. S Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, “Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE Transaction on Advanced Packaging 28, 114–120 (2005).
[Crossref]

in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (1)

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, “Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications,” in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29–30.

in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007 (1)

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, “120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides,” in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288–1293.

in Proc. of OFC (1)

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277–299.

in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (1)

S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguides,” in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, Monterey, 1998), pp. 35–36.

in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (1)

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, “Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection,” in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC ’99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648–1651.

in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 (1)

M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, “Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method,” in Proc. of the CLEO 2004 2, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274–276.

in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics (1)

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, “Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs,” in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337–343.

Invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005 (1)

L. Eldada, “Advances in polymer optical interconnects,” Invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005, (Academic, Sydney, 2005), 361–362.

J. Appl. Polymer Sci. (1)

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, “Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing,” J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320–2327 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, “Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704–1713 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technology (1)

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, “Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots,” J. Lightwave Technology 22, 2119–2127 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The first step of the fabrication procedure: Fabrication of the PDMS rubber masters. The photograph shows the embossing equipment (Jenoptik Mikrotechnik, Jena, Germany).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The second step of the fabrication procedure: Fabrication of a multi-channel waveguide using UV-curable epoxy resins.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photographs of the masters and fabricated waveguide: (a) The Ni primary master for under-clad and Si primary master for over-clad, (b) PC secondary masters, (c) PDMS tertiary masters and final optical waveguide, and (d) light emitting image from a cross-section of the fabricated waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the states of the waveguide between (a) before and (b) after the thermal stability test

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the propagation losses between before and after the thermal stability test.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specific characteristics of the UV-curable epoxy resins for clad and core materials.

Metrics