Abstract

A thermally stable polymeric optical waveguide has been fabricated using ultraviolet (UV)-curable epoxy resins for the core and clad materials. A simple and cost-effective fabrication method that uses reusable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) masters has been developed. The 12-channel under-clad layer of the UV-cured epoxy was prepared using a PDMS master whose embossed channels had been fabricated by a polycarbonate (PC) secondary master. The thermal stability of the fabricated waveguide was tested at 200 °C for one hour. The optical waveguide was not damaged physically by thermal stress. Propagation losses detected by a cut-back method were 0.16 dB/cm and 0.26 dB/cm, respectively, before and after the thermal stability test at 850 nm. Loss increase after the thermal treatment can be attributed to the formation of the absorbing and scattering sources. This waveguide can be applied for areas that require thermal stability such as an optical printed-circuit board.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, "Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications," in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29-30.
  2. L. Eldada, "Advances in polymer optical interconnects," invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005, (Academic, Sydney, 2005), 361-362.
  3. T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, "Polymeric waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15, 5843-5850 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, "Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs," in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337-343.
  5. S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguides," in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, Monterey, 1998), pp. 35-36.
  6. W. Ni, J. Wu, and X. Wu, "Crossing and branching nodes in soft-lithography-based optical interconnects," Opt. Express 15, 12872-12881 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, "Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2119-2127 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, "120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides," in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288-1293.
  9. I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, "Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method," in Proc. of the CLEO 20042, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274-276.
  11. W. Chuang, C. Ho, and W. Chang, "Fabrication of polymer waveguides by a replication method," Appl. Opt. 45, 8304-8307 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection," in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277-299.
  13. L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D.-W. Kim, T.-W. Lee, M. H. Cho, and H.-H. Park, "High-efficiency and stable optical transmitter using VCSEL-direct-bonded connector for optical interconnection," Opt. Express 15, 15767-15775 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, "Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection," in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC �??99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648-1651.
  16. L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, "Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320-2327 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S. H.

Bernussi, A. A.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borhani, M. M.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.-K.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, "Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320-2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

Cho, H. S

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I. -K.

Cho, I.-K.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. H.

Chu, K-M

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W.

de Peralta, L. G.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Doucette, D. E.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, S. G.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, "Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320-2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heo, Y. U.

Ho, C.

Hwang, S. H.

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Jeong, M. Y.

Jeong, M.-Y.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S. K.

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, J.-J.

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-S.

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. H.

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. J.

Lee, T.-W.

Lee, W.-J.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, "Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320-2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ni, W.

Park, H.-H.

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-W. Kim, T.-W. Lee, M. H. Cho, and H.-H. Park, "High-efficiency and stable optical transmitter using VCSEL-direct-bonded connector for optical interconnection," Opt. Express 15, 15767-15775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, "Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2119-2127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, B.-H.

Rho, B. S.

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, "Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2119-2127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shakelette, L. W.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sitaraman, S. K.

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, "Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320-2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stengel, K. M. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takeyoshi, Y.

Temkin, H.

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Xu, C.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, K. B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, M. M. Borhani, and D. E. Doucette, "Silicon-dioxide waveguides with low birefringence," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 874-879 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

I.-K. Cho, W.-J. Lee, M.-Y. Jeong, and H.-H. Park, "Optical module using polymeric waveguide with integrated reflector mirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 410-412 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

H. S. Cho, K-M Chu, S. K. Kang, S. H. Hwang, B. S. Rho, W. H. Kim, J.-S. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and H.-H. Park, "Compact packaging of optical and electronic components for on-board optical interconnects," IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 28, 114-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polymer Sci. (1)

S. G. Hegde, F. Liu, G.-K. Chang, and S. K. Sitaraman, "Optical loss changes in Siloxane polymer waveguides during thermal curing," J. Appl. Polymer Sci. 106, 2320-2327 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

L. Eldada, C. Xu, K. M. T. Stengel, L. W. Shakelette, and J. T. Yardley, "Laser-fabricated low-loss single mode raised-rib waveguiding devices in polymers," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1704-1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Yoon, I. -K. Cho, S. H. Ahn, M. Y. Jeong, D. J. Lee, Y. U. Heo, B. S. Rho, H.-H. Park, and B.-H. Rhee, "Optical backplane system using waveguide-embedded PCBs and optical slots," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2119-2127 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (8)

S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, M. Amano, S. Tohno, and Saburo Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguide with high thermal stability and its application for optical interconnection," in Proc. of OFC, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 1999), 277-299.

M. S. Kim, J. W. Yoon, and J. H. Oh, "Fabrication of multimode polymer waveguide using new replication method," in Proc. of the CLEO 20042, (Academic, San Francisco, CA., 2004), 274-276.

K. Enbutsu, M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, M. Usui, S. Imamura, and T. Maruno, "Multimode optical waveguide fabricated by UV cured epoxy resin for optical interconnection," in Proc. of the 5th APCC/OECC �??99. (Academic, Beijing, 1999), 1648-1651.

R. Daniel, U. Bapst, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, F. Horst, B. Offrein, and G.-.L Bona, "Development of a low-cost low-loss polymeric waveguide technology for parallel optical interconnect applications," in Proc. of 2004 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, San Diego, CA., 2004), 29-30.

L. Eldada, "Advances in polymer optical interconnects," invited paper, in Proc. of Lasers and Electro-Optics Society 2005, (Academic, Sydney, 2005), 361-362.

H. Schröder, J. Bauer, F. Ebling, and W. Scheel, "Polymer optical interconnects for PCBs," in Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Polymers and Adhesives in Microelectronics and Photonics, (Academic, Potsdam, 2001), 337-343.

S. Imamura, "Polymeric optical waveguides," in Proc. of the 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, (Academic, Monterey, 1998), pp. 35-36.

L. Dellmann, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, R. Dangel, M. Gmur, R. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, N. Meier, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, R. Stevens, and B. J. Offrein, "120 Gb/s optical card-to-card interconnect link demonstrator with embedded waveguides," in Proc. of IEEE ECTC 2007, (Academic, Reno, NV., 2007), 1288-1293.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The first step of the fabrication procedure: Fabrication of the PDMS rubber masters. The photograph shows the embossing equipment (Jenoptik Mikrotechnik, Jena, Germany).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The second step of the fabrication procedure: Fabrication of a multi-channel waveguide using UV-curable epoxy resins.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photographs of the masters and fabricated waveguide: (a) The Ni primary master for under-clad and Si primary master for over-clad, (b) PC secondary masters, (c) PDMS tertiary masters and final optical waveguide, and (d) light emitting image from a cross-section of the fabricated waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the states of the waveguide between (a) before and (b) after the thermal stability test

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the propagation losses between before and after the thermal stability test.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specific characteristics of the UV-curable epoxy resins for clad and core materials.

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