Abstract

In this paper we provide evidence of the temporal fluctuations of the phase modulation property of a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) display, and we analyze its effect when the device is used for displaying a diffractive optical element. We use a commercial twisted nematic LCoS display configured to produce a phase-only modulation, and we provide time resolved measurements of the diffraction efficiency that show rapid fluctuations of the phase modulation, in the millisecond order. We analyze how these fluctuations have to be considered in two typical methods for the characterization of the phase modulation: two beam interference and diffraction from a binary grating. We finally provide experimental results on the use of this device for displaying a computer generated hologram. A reduction of the modulation diffraction efficiency results from the phase modulation fluctuation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization," Opt. Express 16, 1669-1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Clemente, V. Durán, Ll. Martínez-León, V. Climent, E. Tajahuerce, and J. Lancis, "Use of polar decomposition of Mueller matrices for optimizing the phase response of a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Express 16, 1965-1974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4267-4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, "Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution," Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed onto a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

W. J. Hossak, E. Theofanidou, J. Crain, K. Heggarty, and M. Birch, "High-speed holographic optical tweezers using a ferroelectric liquid crystal microdisplay," Opt. Express 11, 2053-2059 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1995

1994

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe Jr., and J. Knopp "Measurement of the transmittance of the Epson liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 1061-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, G. Lu, and F. T. S. Yu "Simple method for measuring phase modulation in liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 3018-3022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1990

K. Lu and B. E. A. Saleh, "Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator," Opt. Eng. 29, 240-246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, H. H.

Bengtsson, J.

Bergeron, A.

Birch, M.

Blümel, Thomas

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, "Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution," Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4267-4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization," Opt. Express 16, 1669-1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, J. C. Escalera, and M. J. Yzuel, "Programmable apodizer to compensate chromatic aberrations effects using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 13, 716-730(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed onto a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carnicer, A.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Clemente, P.

Climent, V.

Collings, N.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crain, J.

Crossland, W. A.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, H. T.

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davey, A. B.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Davis, I. Moreno, and T. Tsai, "Polarization eigenstates for twisted-nematic liquid-crystal displays," Appl. Opt. 37, 937-945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doucet, M.

Durán, V.

Engström, D.

Escalera, J. C.

Evans, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Pousa, C. R.

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, F.

Galt, S.

Gauvin, J.

Gingras, D.

Gourlay, J.

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heggarty, K.

Hermerschmidt, A.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, "Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution," Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hossack, W. J.

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hossak, W. J.

Iemmi, C.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4267-4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization," Opt. Express 16, 1669-1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, J. C. Escalera, and M. J. Yzuel, "Programmable apodizer to compensate chromatic aberrations effects using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 13, 716-730(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed onto a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeziorska, A. M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juvells, I.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knopp, J.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe Jr., and J. Knopp "Measurement of the transmittance of the Epson liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 1061-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, C.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, "Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology," Opt. Pura Apl. 38, 71-81 (2005).

Komar??evi??, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, S.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, "Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution," Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Labastida, I.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lancis, J.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liesener, J.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, "Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology," Opt. Pura Apl. 38, 71-81 (2005).

Liu, J.

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lizana, A.

Lu, G.

Z. Zhang, G. Lu, and F. T. S. Yu "Simple method for measuring phase modulation in liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 3018-3022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, K.

K. Lu and B. E. A. Saleh, "Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator," Opt. Eng. 29, 240-246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.-Y.

Márquez, A.

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization," Opt. Express 16, 1669-1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4267-4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, J. C. Escalera, and M. J. Yzuel, "Programmable apodizer to compensate chromatic aberrations effects using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 13, 716-730(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed onto a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Badosa, E.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-León, Ll.

Mateos, F.

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milewski, G.

Millán, M. S.

Monroe, S. E.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe Jr., and J. Knopp "Measurement of the transmittance of the Epson liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 1061-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J. R.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization," Opt. Express 16, 1669-1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4267-4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed onto a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Davis, I. Moreno, and T. Tsai, "Polarization eigenstates for twisted-nematic liquid-crystal displays," Appl. Opt. 37, 937-945 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osten, S.

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, "Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution," Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, "Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology," Opt. Pura Apl. 38, 71-81 (2005).

Otón, J.

Parker, R. J.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Cabré, E.

Pezzanitti, J. L.

Saleh, B. E. A.

K. Lu and B. E. A. Saleh, "Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator," Opt. Eng. 29, 240-246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-López, M. M.

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soutar, C.

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe Jr., and J. Knopp "Measurement of the transmittance of the Epson liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 1061-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tajahuerce, E.

Theofanidou, E.

Tsai, T.

Tudela, R.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, I.

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vallmitjana, S.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velásquez, P.

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walton, A. J.

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. E.

Xu, H.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, K. S.

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

Z. Zhang, G. Lu, and F. T. S. Yu "Simple method for measuring phase modulation in liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 3018-3022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M. J.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Time-resolved Mueller matrix analysis of a liquid crystal on silicon display," Appl. Opt. 47, 4267-4274 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, A. Lizana, J. Campos, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, and M. J. Yzuel, "Combined Mueller and Jones matrix method for the evaluation of the complex modulation in a liquid-crystal-on-silicon display," Opt. Lett. 33, 627-629 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Lizana, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Mueller-Stokes characterization and optimization of a liquid crystal on silicon display showing depolarization," Opt. Express 16, 1669-1685 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, J. C. Escalera, and M. J. Yzuel, "Programmable apodizer to compensate chromatic aberrations effects using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator," Opt. Express 13, 716-730(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, A. Márquez, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Modulation light efficiency of diffractive lenses displayed onto a restricted phase-mostly modulation display," Appl. Opt. 43, 6278-6284 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, G. Lu, and F. T. S. Yu "Simple method for measuring phase modulation in liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 3018-3022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komar�?evi�?, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, "The silicon backplane design for an LCOS polarization-insensitive phase hologram SLM", IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 20, 60-62 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. Moreno, P. Velásquez, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, M. M. Sánchez-López, and F. Mateos, "Jones matrix method for predicting and optimizing the optical modulation properties of a liquid-crystal display," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3697-3702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub.

A. Lizana, A. Márquez, I. Moreno, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Wavelength dependence of polarimetric and phase-shift characterization of a liquid crystal on silicon display," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Pub. 3, 08011 1-6 (2008).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

R. Tudela, E. Martín-Badosa, I. Labastida, S. Vallmitjana, I. Juvells, and A. Carnicer, "Full complex Fresnel holograms displayed on liquid crystal devices," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S189-S194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Commun.

H. T. Dai, K. S. Xu, Y. J. Liu, X. Wang, and J. Liu, "Characteristics of LCoS phase-only spatial light modulator and its applications," Opt. Commun. 238, 269-276 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lee, J. Gourlay, W. J. Hossack, I. Underwood, and A. J. Walton, "Multi-phase modulation for nematic liquid crystal on silicon backplane spatial light modulators using pulse-width modulation driving scheme," Opt. Commun. 236, 313-322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, I. Moreno, J. A. Davis, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, "Quantitative prediction of the modulation behavior of twisted nematic liquid crystal displays based on a simple physical model," Opt. Eng. 40, 2558-2564 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Lu and B. E. A. Saleh, "Theory and design of the liquid crystal TV as an optical spatial phase modulator," Opt. Eng. 29, 240-246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Soutar, S. E. Monroe Jr., and J. Knopp "Measurement of the transmittance of the Epson liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 1061-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, G. Lu, and F. T. S. Yu "Simple method for measuring phase modulation in liquid crystal television," Opt. Eng. 33, 3018-3022 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Pura Apl.

W. Osten, C. Kohler, and J. Liesener, "Evaluation and application of spatial light modulators for optical metrology," Opt. Pura Apl. 38, 71-81 (2005).

Proc. SPIE

A. Hermerschmidt, S. Osten, S. Krüger, and T. Blümel, "Wave front generation using a phase-only modulating liquid-crystalbased micro-display with HDTV resolution," Proc. SPIE 6584, 65840E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (John Wiley & Sons Inc., Chichester, 2005).

J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, eds., Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1997).

H. J. Coufal, D. Psaltis, and B. T. Sincerbox, Eds., Holographic Data Storage (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).

S. Serati and J. Harriman, "Spatial light modulator considerations for beam control in optical manipulation applications," Proc. SPIE 6326, 63262W1-11 (2006).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (173 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (907 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical setup to capture time resolved measurements of the phase modulation. HWP0 is a half-wave plate, QWP are quarter-wave plates and LP are linear polarizers. The inset table shows the orientation of the PSG and PSD elements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Intensity measurements of the transmitted intensity at the polarization configuration in Table 1. (a) Average measurements versus gray level, (b) Time resolved measurements for gray levels GL=0,120 and 255.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity measurements at the zero and fisrt diffraction orders for binary diffraction gratings with gray levels (a) (0,120), (b) (0,211) and (c) (0,255). (d) Instantaneous phase values as a function of time for different grey levels

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Simplified phase variation in a period of time. (b). Intensity of the zero and first diffraction order for a binary phase grating with mean phase Φ ¯ =π as a function of the amplitude (a) of the phase modulation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two beam interferometer set-up to measure the phase modulation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Displacement Δx between two interference patterns for two gray levels addressed to the display. (b). Mean phase modulation versus addressed gray levels. IP denotes the interferometric phase characterization and MIP denotes the mean of the instantaneous phases measured with the diffractive method (Fig. 3(d)).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fourier transform spectrum captured wit the CCD camera when a binary DOE is displayed onto the LCoS display with gray levels (0,211) (mean phase difference of π radians). (a). Binary diffraction grating, (Media 1). (b). Computer generated hologram designed to reconstruct a butterfly (Media 2).

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M R = e i β ( t ) ( A ( t ) B ( t ) B * ( t ) A * ( t ) ) ,
J ( t ) output = e i β ( t ) ( A ( t ) B ( t ) B * ( t ) A * ( t ) ) J input = e i β ( t ) J ( t ) ,
J ( t ) = ( A ( t ) B ( t ) B * ( t ) A * ( t ) ) ( cos θ e i ϕ sin θ ) .
Z ( t ) = e i β ( t ) PSD J ( t ) = e i β ( t ) · Z ( t ) = e i β ( t ) · e i β ( t ) · Z ( t ) ,
Φ ( t ) = β ( t ) + δ ( t ) ,
I 0 ( t ) = 1 2 ( 1 + cos Φ ( t ) ) , I ± 1 ( t ) = 2 π 2 ( 1 cos Φ ( t ) ) .
cos ( Φ ( t ) ) = 4 I 0 ( t ) π 2 I 1 ( t ) 4 I 0 ( t ) + π 2 I 1 ( t ) .
I ̅ 0 = 1 2 ( 1 + cos ( Φ ( t ) ) ) , I ̅ ± 1 = 2 π 2 ( 1 cos ( Φ ( t ) ) ) ,
cos Φ = 1 T [ 0 T 2 cos ( Φ ̅ a + 2 at T 2 ) dt + T 2 T cos ( Φ ̅ + a 2 a ( t T 2 ) T 2 ) dt ]
= sin a a cos ( Φ ̅ ) .
I ̅ 0 = 1 2 ( 1 + sin a a cos ( Φ ̅ ) ) , I ̅ ± 1 = 2 π 2 ( 1 sin a a cos ( Φ ̅ ) ) .
cos ( Φ M ) = 4 I ̅ 0 π 2 I ̅ 1 4 I ̅ 0 + π 2 I ̅ 1 = sin a a cos ( Φ ̅ ) cos ( Φ ̅ ) .
I ( t ) = 2 I 0 ( 1 + cos ( Φ ( t ) + 2 π px ) ) .
I ̅ = I ( t ) = 2 I 0 ( 1 + cos ( Φ ( t ) + 2 π px ) ) = 2 I 0 ( 1 + sin a a cos ( Φ ̅ + 2 π px ) ) .

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