Abstract

Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is a powerful phase-sensitive technique that generates the improved contrast of weakly absorbing samples compared to conventional radiography. The x-ray refraction contrast of the sample is an important contrast in DEI, and it vastly exceeds the absorption contrast for weakly absorbing samples imaging, which makes it hold great promise for medical, biological and material applications. In order to effectively utilize the refraction contrast, the key procedure is first to obtain the refraction information expressed as the refraction image. By comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the refraction image, x-ray radiation dose of the sample and the range of obtained refraction angles, the different refraction information extraction methods are investigated in this paper, and the experimental results confirm the conclusion.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, "Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues," Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Oltulu, Z. Zhong, M. Hasnah, and D. Chapman, "Extraction of extinction, refraction and absorption properties in diffraction enhanced imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2152-2156 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Li, N. Wang, and Z. Y. Wu, "Hard x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 49, 2120-2125 (2004).
  11. Z. F. Huang, K. J. Kang, and Z. Li, "Refraction-angle resolution of diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3031-3039 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Z. Kiss, D. E. Sayers, and Z. Zhong, "Measurement of image contrast using diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 325-340 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Huang, K. J. Kang, and Z. Li, "Refraction-angle resolution of diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3031-3039 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Li, N. Wang, and Z. Y. Wu, "Hard x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 49, 2120-2125 (2004).

2003 (4)

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Oltulu, Z. Zhong, M. Hasnah, and D. Chapman, "Extraction of extinction, refraction and absorption properties in diffraction enhanced imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2152-2156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Kiss, D. E. Sayers, and Z. Zhong, "Measurement of image contrast using diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 325-340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, "Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues," Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anastasion, M. A.

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arfelli, F.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baruchel, J.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brankov, J. G.

C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bravin, A.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D.

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Oltulu, Z. Zhong, M. Hasnah, and D. Chapman, "Extraction of extinction, refraction and absorption properties in diffraction enhanced imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2152-2156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloetens, P.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coan, P.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. J.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, S.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galatsanos, N. P.

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, D.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gmur, N.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gureyev, T. E.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hartwig, J.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hasnah, M.

O. Oltulu, Z. Zhong, M. Hasnah, and D. Chapman, "Extraction of extinction, refraction and absorption properties in diffraction enhanced imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2152-2156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, K.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, "Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues," Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W. X.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. F.

Z. F. Huang, K. J. Kang, and Z. Li, "Refraction-angle resolution of diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3031-3039 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itai, Y.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, "Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues," Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, R. E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K. J.

Z. F. Huang, K. J. Kang, and Z. Li, "Refraction-angle resolution of diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3031-3039 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiss, M. Z.

M. Z. Kiss, D. E. Sayers, and Z. Zhong, "Measurement of image contrast using diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 325-340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, N. Wang, and Z. Y. Wu, "Hard x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 49, 2120-2125 (2004).

Li, J.

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. F. Huang, K. J. Kang, and Z. Li, "Refraction-angle resolution of diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3031-3039 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. L.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momose, A.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, "Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues," Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muehleman, C.

C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oltulu, O.

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Oltulu, Z. Zhong, M. Hasnah, and D. Chapman, "Extraction of extinction, refraction and absorption properties in diffraction enhanced imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2152-2156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pagot, E.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. J.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pisano, E.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayers, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayers, D. E.

M. Z. Kiss, D. E. Sayers, and Z. Zhong, "Measurement of image contrast using diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 325-340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, D. R.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenvenson, A. W.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, "Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues," Nat. Med. 2, 473-475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomlinson, W.

E. Pagot, P. Cloetens, S. Fiedler, A. Bravin, P.  CoanP , J.  Baruchel, J.  Hartwig, and W. ThomlinsonW,  "A method to extract quantitative information in analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3421-3423 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

G. Li, N. Wang, and Z. Y. Wu, "Hard x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 49, 2120-2125 (2004).

Washburn, D.

D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wernick, M. N.

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S. W.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stenvenson, and S. W. Wilkins, "Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials using hard x-rays," Nature 373, 595-598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wirjadi, O.

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. Y.

G. Li, N. Wang, and Z. Y. Wu, "Hard x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals," Chin. Sci. Bull. 49, 2120-2125 (2004).

Yan, X. H.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W. T.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. Y.

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Q. X.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
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Zhang, X. Y.

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
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Zhong, Z.

C. Muehleman, J. Li, Z. Zhong, J. G. Brankov, and M. N. Wernick, "Multiple-image radiography for human soft tissue," J. Anat. 208, 115-124 (2006).
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J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
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M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Kiss, D. E. Sayers, and Z. Zhong, "Measurement of image contrast using diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 325-340 (2003).
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C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Oltulu, Z. Zhong, M. Hasnah, and D. Chapman, "Extraction of extinction, refraction and absorption properties in diffraction enhanced imaging," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36, 2152-2156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

J. G. Brankov, M. N. Wernick, Y. Y. Yang, J. Li, C. Muehleman, Z. Zhong, and M. A. Anastasion, "Computed tomography implementation of multiple-image radiography," Med. Phys. 33, 278-289 (2006).
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D. Chapman, W. Thomlinson, R. E. Johnston, D. Washburn, E. Pisano, N. Gmur, Z. Zhong, F. Arfelli, and D. Sayers, "Diffraction enhanced x-ray imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 2015-2025 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Wernick, O. Wirjadi, D. Chapman, Z. Zhong, N. P. Galatsanos, Y. Y. Yang, J. G. Brankov, O. Oltulu, M. A. Anastasion, and C. Muehleman, "Multiple-image radiography," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 3875-3895 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Liu, X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, W. T. Yang, W. J. Peng, D. R. Shi, P. P. Zhu, W. X. Huang, and Q. X. Yuan, "Evaluation of x-ray diffraction enhanced imaging in the diagnosis of breast cancer," Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 419-427 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. F. Huang, K. J. Kang, and Z. Li, "Refraction-angle resolution of diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 3031-3039 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Kiss, D. E. Sayers, and Z. Zhong, "Measurement of image contrast using diffraction enhanced imaging," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 325-340 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The DEI setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The RC of DEI system in the experiment

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SNR (a) and exposure time (b) in the refraction image as a function of the image number. In (a) and (b), the solid triangle label indicates SNR and exposure time of the refraction image in MIR method for the different image number series respectively, and the solid square label indicates SNR and exposure time of the refraction image obtained using EDEI method respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The refraction images of the guinea pig cochlea obtained by use of different methods: (a) EDEI and (b) MIR.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The range of refraction angles in the refraction images of the guinea pig cochlea obtained using different refraction information extraction methods

Equations (13)

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I = I R R ( θ + Δ θ ) ,
R ( θ + Δ θ ) = R ( θ ) + d R d θ ( θ ) Δ θ + φ ( θ , Δ θ ) ,
φ ( θ , Δ θ ) = n = 2 1 n ! R ( n ) ( θ ) ( Δ θ ) n .
R ( θ + Δ θ ) = R ( θ ) + d R d θ ( θ ) Δ θ .
Δ θ = I H R ( θ L ) I L R ( θ H ) I L ( d R d θ ) ( θ H ) I H ( d R d θ ) ( θ L ) .
R ( θ ) = A exp ( θ 2 2 σ 2 ) ,
R ( θ L ) = R ( θ H ) , ( d R d θ ) ( θ L ) = ( d R d θ ) ( θ H ) .
Δ θ = w D 4 ln 2 I L I H I L + I H .
R ( θ + Δ θ ) = A exp ( ( θ + Δ θ ) 2 2 σ 2 ) .
I L , H = I R A exp ( ( θ L , H + Δ θ ) 2 2 σ 2 ) .
Δ θ = w D 8 ln 2 ln ( I L I H ) .
Δ θ = n = 1 N I s ( θ n ) θ n n = 1 N I s ( θ n ) n = 1 N I b ( θ n ) θ n n = 1 N I b ( θ n ) .
SNR = ( θ R , max θ R , min ) σ ref ,

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