Abstract

Simulation of underwater light is essential for modeling marine ecosystems. A new model of underwater light attenuation is presented and compared with previous models. In situ data collected in Monterey Bay, CA. during September 2006 are used for validation. It is demonstrated that while the new light model is computationally simple and efficient it maintains accuracy and flexibility. When this light model is incorporated into an ecosystem model, the correlation between modeled and observed coastal chlorophyll is improved over an eight-year time period. While the simulation of a deep chlorophyll maximum demonstrates the effect of the new model at depth.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Bradley Penta, Zhongping Lee, Raphael M. Kudela, Sherry L. Palacios, Deric J. Gray, Jason K. Jolliff, and Igor G. Shulman, "An underwater light attenuation scheme for marine ecosystem models: errata," Opt. Express 17, 23351-23351 (2009)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-25-23351

References

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  13. P. A. Newburger, J. S. Allen, and Y. H. Spitz, "Analysis and comparison of three ecosystem models," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JC001182 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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2008 (1)

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, "The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study," Biogeosciences 4, 817-835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. A. Hodges and D. L. Rudnick, "Horizontal variability in chlorophyll fluorescence and potential temperature," Deep Sea Res. 53, 1460-1482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. A. Newburger, J. S. Allen, and Y. H. Spitz, "Analysis and comparison of three ecosystem models," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JC001182 (2003).

2002 (4)

O. Zielinski, O. Llinas, A. Oschlies, and R. Reuter, "Underwater light field and its effect on a one-dimensional ecosystem model at station ESTOC, north of the Canary Islands," Deep Sea Res. 49, 3529-3542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R.A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. J. Walsh, B. Penta, D. A. Dieterle, and W. P. Bissett, " Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms," Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. 7, 1369-1383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. A. Olivieri and F. P. Chavez, "A model of plankton dynamics for the coastal upwelling system of Monterey Bay, California," Deep Sea Res. II 47, 1077-1106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. S. Bartlett, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and J. J. Cullen, "The spectral effect of clouds on solar irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,017-31,031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (3)

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, "Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347-1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Penta and J. J. Walsh, "A one-dimensional ecological model of summer oxygen distributions within the Chukchi Sea," Cont. Shelf Res. 15, 337-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. K. Rosenfeld, F. B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D. E. Tracy, "Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: a cold water source for Monterey Bay," Cont. Shelf. Res. 14, 931-964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. J. R. Fasham, H. W. Ducklow, and S. M. McKelvie, "A nitrogen-based model of phytoplankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer," J. Mar. Res. 48, 591-639 (1991).

J. T. O. Kirk, "Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455-467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, "The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270-9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. J. Cullen, "The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, "An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671-689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Allen, J. S.

P. A. Newburger, J. S. Allen, and Y. H. Spitz, "Analysis and comparison of three ecosystem models," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JC001182 (2003).

Anderson, S.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R.A.

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R. T.

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, J. S.

J. S. Bartlett, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and J. J. Cullen, "The spectral effect of clouds on solar irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,017-31,031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berwald, J.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, "Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347-1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

J. J. Walsh, B. Penta, D. A. Dieterle, and W. P. Bissett, " Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms," Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. 7, 1369-1383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, "The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study," Biogeosciences 4, 817-835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Chai, F.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, "The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study," Biogeosciences 4, 817-835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

R. A. Olivieri and F. P. Chavez, "A model of plankton dynamics for the coastal upwelling system of Monterey Bay, California," Deep Sea Res. II 47, 1077-1106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ciotti, A. M.

J. S. Bartlett, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and J. J. Cullen, "The spectral effect of clouds on solar irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,017-31,031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cloern, J. E.

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, J. J.

J. S. Bartlett, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and J. J. Cullen, "The spectral effect of clouds on solar irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,017-31,031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Cullen, "The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, J.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Davis, R. F.

J. S. Bartlett, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and J. J. Cullen, "The spectral effect of clouds on solar irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,017-31,031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

deRada, S.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dieterle, D. A.

J. J. Walsh, B. Penta, D. A. Dieterle, and W. P. Bissett, " Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms," Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. 7, 1369-1383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, J. D.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Du, K.

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducklow, H. W.

M. J. R. Fasham, H. W. Ducklow, and S. M. McKelvie, "A nitrogen-based model of phytoplankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer," J. Mar. Res. 48, 591-639 (1991).

Dugdale, R.

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dugdale, R. C.

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fasham, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Fasham, H. W. Ducklow, and S. M. McKelvie, "A nitrogen-based model of phytoplankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer," J. Mar. Res. 48, 591-639 (1991).

Fry, E. S.

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, "The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study," Biogeosciences 4, 817-835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garfield, N.

L. K. Rosenfeld, F. B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D. E. Tracy, "Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: a cold water source for Monterey Bay," Cont. Shelf. Res. 14, 931-964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Helber, R.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, B. A.

B. A. Hodges and D. L. Rudnick, "Horizontal variability in chlorophyll fluorescence and potential temperature," Deep Sea Res. 53, 1460-1482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hodur, R. M.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Hong, X.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Jolliff, J. K.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, "Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347-1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kindle, J.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kindle, J. C.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, "Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455-467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, N.

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Labiosa, R. G.

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R.A. Arnone, "Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters," Appl. Opt. 41, 5755-5772 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liew, S.

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Llinas, O.

O. Zielinski, O. Llinas, A. Oschlies, and R. Reuter, "Underwater light field and its effect on a one-dimensional ecosystem model at station ESTOC, north of the Canary Islands," Deep Sea Res. 49, 3529-3542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C. B.

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

McKelvie, S. M.

M. J. R. Fasham, H. W. Ducklow, and S. M. McKelvie, "A nitrogen-based model of phytoplankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer," J. Mar. Res. 48, 591-639 (1991).

Mobley, C. D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, "Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347-1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newburger, P. A.

P. A. Newburger, J. S. Allen, and Y. H. Spitz, "Analysis and comparison of three ecosystem models," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JC001182 (2003).

Olivieri, R. A.

R. A. Olivieri and F. P. Chavez, "A model of plankton dynamics for the coastal upwelling system of Monterey Bay, California," Deep Sea Res. II 47, 1077-1106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oschlies, A.

O. Zielinski, O. Llinas, A. Oschlies, and R. Reuter, "Underwater light field and its effect on a one-dimensional ecosystem model at station ESTOC, north of the Canary Islands," Deep Sea Res. 49, 3529-3542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paduan, J.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, T.-H.

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penta, B.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Walsh, B. Penta, D. A. Dieterle, and W. P. Bissett, " Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms," Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. 7, 1369-1383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Penta and J. J. Walsh, "A one-dimensional ecological model of summer oxygen distributions within the Chukchi Sea," Cont. Shelf Res. 15, 337-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, "The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270-9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, "An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671-689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pullen, J.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Ramp, S.

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rennick, M. A.

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Reuter, R.

O. Zielinski, O. Llinas, A. Oschlies, and R. Reuter, "Underwater light field and its effect on a one-dimensional ecosystem model at station ESTOC, north of the Canary Islands," Deep Sea Res. 49, 3529-3542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, L. K.

L. K. Rosenfeld, F. B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D. E. Tracy, "Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: a cold water source for Monterey Bay," Cont. Shelf. Res. 14, 931-964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, C. D.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudnick, D. L.

B. A. Hodges and D. L. Rudnick, "Horizontal variability in chlorophyll fluorescence and potential temperature," Deep Sea Res. 53, 1460-1482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, "The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270-9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, "An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671-689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schraga, T. S.

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwing, F. B.

L. K. Rosenfeld, F. B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D. E. Tracy, "Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: a cold water source for Monterey Bay," Cont. Shelf. Res. 14, 931-964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shulman, I.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spitz, Y. H.

P. A. Newburger, J. S. Allen, and Y. H. Spitz, "Analysis and comparison of three ecosystem models," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JC001182 (2003).

Stramski, D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, "Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347-1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tracy, D. E.

L. K. Rosenfeld, F. B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D. E. Tracy, "Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: a cold water source for Monterey Bay," Cont. Shelf. Res. 14, 931-964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. J.

J. J. Walsh, B. Penta, D. A. Dieterle, and W. P. Bissett, " Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms," Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. 7, 1369-1383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Penta and J. J. Walsh, "A one-dimensional ecological model of summer oxygen distributions within the Chukchi Sea," Cont. Shelf Res. 15, 337-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, F. P.

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zielinski, O.

O. Zielinski, O. Llinas, A. Oschlies, and R. Reuter, "Underwater light field and its effect on a one-dimensional ecosystem model at station ESTOC, north of the Canary Islands," Deep Sea Res. 49, 3529-3542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biogeosciences (1)

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, "The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study," Biogeosciences 4, 817-835 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1)

J. J. Cullen, "The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a," Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39, 791-803 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf Res. (1)

B. Penta and J. J. Walsh, "A one-dimensional ecological model of summer oxygen distributions within the Chukchi Sea," Cont. Shelf Res. 15, 337-356 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Shelf. Res. (1)

L. K. Rosenfeld, F. B. Schwing, N. Garfield, and D. E. Tracy, "Bifurcated flow from an upwelling center: a cold water source for Monterey Bay," Cont. Shelf. Res. 14, 931-964 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. (2)

B. A. Hodges and D. L. Rudnick, "Horizontal variability in chlorophyll fluorescence and potential temperature," Deep Sea Res. 53, 1460-1482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Zielinski, O. Llinas, A. Oschlies, and R. Reuter, "Underwater light field and its effect on a one-dimensional ecosystem model at station ESTOC, north of the Canary Islands," Deep Sea Res. 49, 3529-3542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deep Sea Res. II (2)

F. Chai, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, and R. T. Barber, "One-dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system. Part I: model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle," Deep Sea Res. II 49, 2713-2745 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Olivieri and F. P. Chavez, "A model of plankton dynamics for the coastal upwelling system of Monterey Bay, California," Deep Sea Res. II 47, 1077-1106 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. E. Cloern, T. S. Schraga, C. B. Lopez, N. Knowles, R. G. Labiosa, and R. Dugdale, "Climate anomalies generate an exceptional dinoflagellate bloom in San Francisco Bay," Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi:10.1029/2005GL023321 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. (1)

J. J. Walsh, B. Penta, D. A. Dieterle, and W. P. Bissett, " Predictive ecological modeling of harmful algal blooms," Hum. Ecol. Risk Asses. 7, 1369-1383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

Z. Lee, K. Du, R. Arnone, S. Liew, and B. Penta, "Penetration of solar radiation in the upper ocean: a numerical model for oceanic and coastal waters," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C09019 doi:10.1029/2004JC002780 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, P. Martin, S. deRada, J. Doyle, B. Penta, S. Anderson, F. Chavez, J. Paduan, and S. Ramp," Modeling of upwelling/relaxation events with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C06023, doi:10.1029/2006JC003946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Newburger, J. S. Allen, and Y. H. Spitz, "Analysis and comparison of three ecosystem models," J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi:10.1029/2001JC001182 (2003).

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, "Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization," J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321-13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, B. Penta, R. Helber, Z. Lee, I. Shulman, R. Arnone, and C. D. Rowley, "On the relationship between satellite-estimated bio-optical and thermal properties in the Gulf of Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2006JG000373 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, "Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal," J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163-7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bartlett, A. M. Ciotti, R. F. Davis, and J. J. Cullen, "The spectral effect of clouds on solar irradiance," J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,017-31,031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath and T. Platt, "The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing," J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270-9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

M. J. R. Fasham, H. W. Ducklow, and S. M. McKelvie, "A nitrogen-based model of phytoplankton dynamics in the oceanic mixed layer," J. Mar. Res. 48, 591-639 (1991).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, "An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials," Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671-689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, "Volume scattering function, average cosines, and the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 36, 455-467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. D. Mobley, and D. A. Kiefer, "Influences of absorption and scattering on vertical changes in the average cosine of the underwater light field," Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 1347-1357 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oceanogr. (1)

R. M. Hodur, J. Pullen, J. Cummings, X. Hong, J. D. Doyle, P. J. Martin, and M. A. Rennick, "The Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS)," Oceanogr. 15, 88-98 (2002).

Other (7)

H. R. Gordon and A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer, NY, 1983).
[CrossRef]

I. Shulman, J. Kindle, S. deRada, S. Anderson, B. Penta, and P. Martin, "Development of a hierarchy of different resolution models for study U.S. West Coast California Current Ecosystem," in Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, M. L. Spaulding, ed., (Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, 2004).

B. Penta et al., are preparing a paper to be called "Ecosystem dynamics in the California Current System: analysis from a coupled physical-ecological ocean model."

C. D. Mobley, "Hydrolight 3.0 users�?? guide," (SRI Int., Menlo Park, Calif. 1995).

B. Penta, "Phytoplankton competition on the West Florida shelf: a simulation analysis with red tide implications," Ph.D. Dissertation, (Univ. So. Fla. 2000).

www7333.nrlssc.navy.mil

J. E. O'Reilly, and 24 Coauthors, SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), Vol. 11, pp. 49.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mean (of cloud-free pixels) OC3m chlorophyll (a), total absorption (b), backscattering (c), and absorption due to CDOM and detritus (d) in Monterey Bay, CA. for the period September 5–15, 2006. Symbols indicate the locations and dates of in situ profiles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Profiles, typical of the in situ data set, of density, backscatter, salinity, temperature, and fluorometer derived chlorophyll (from 05 Sep., 2006).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PAR profiles (%) from models and in situ data with in situ fluorometer profile for two example casts. Low (a) PAR penetration/high chlorophyll and deeper (b) PAR penetration/lower chlorophyll.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized % error of the model means compared with the data mean profile (a). Mean in situ fluorometer profile and total number of samples from each depth (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison % PAR profiles for S1-4 and M1 run for an idealized water column with no chlorophyll. Dashed light delineates the 1% light level (i.e., depth of the euphotic zone).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

NCOM-CCS chlorophyll (colors) and nitrate (white contours) results using M1 (top) vs. S2 (bottom) for 15 Jan 2003 at 31.16° N

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Time series (1999–2006) of the correlation of model and SeaWiFS coastal surface chlorophyll along the U.S. West coast: NCOM-CCS with S2 attenuation model (blue) and with M1 (red).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Coefficient sets used for the standard PAR attenuation model.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Results of model/data comparisons.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PAR ( z ) = PAR ( 0 ) e k ( z )
k ( z ) = k w + k c 0 z chl ( z ) d z
PAR ( z ) = PAR ( 0 ) e k PAR ( z ) z
k PAR ( z ) = k 1 + k 2 ( 1 + z ) 0.5
k 1 = [ χ 0 + χ 1 ( a 490 ) 0.5 + χ 2 b b 490 ] ( 1 + α 0 sin ( θ a ) )
k 2 = [ ζ 1 + ζ 2 ( a 490 ) 0.5 + ζ 2 b b 490 ] ( α 1 + α 2 cos ( θ a ) )
a 490 ( z ) = [ a 490 * 0 z chl ( z ) ] + a w 490
b b 490 ( z ) = 0.015 { 0.3 [ ( 0 z chl ( z ) ) 0.62 550 490 ] }

Metrics