Abstract

We have developed a compact Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-synchronized arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer with 40 100-GHz-spaced channels using 1.5-% Δ waveguides. This MZI-synchronized AWG has a chip size of only 35×28 mm2, and a low insertion loss of 1.0 - 1.2 dB with a flat-top frequency response. This low insertion loss is achieved by i) installing spot-size converters at the ends of optical input and output waveguides, and ii) employing a narrow gap in a directional coupler at the junction of the MZI and AWG. This device exhibited other excellent characteristics including a wide 0.5-dB passband of more than 45 GHz and a low adjacent crosstalk of less than -35 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Inoue, "Recent advances in silica-based PLCs," in 2007 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuC3.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Brainard, B. Fondeur, and D. J. Dougherty, "Advances in planar lightwave circuits for wavelength routing applications," in Technical Digest of Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Nanophotonics 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper IMB1.
  4. B. Fondeur, R. Brainard, D. Dougherty, and J. Bhardwaj, "Advances in PLC technology for DWDM applications," in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2006 (Société de l�??Electricité, de l�??Electronique et des Technologies de l�??Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper Tu4.4.1.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar ligtwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faltin, K.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar ligtwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hida, Y.

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Himeno, A.

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, M.

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar ligtwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, B.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kitoh, T.

Mizuno, T.

Ohmori, Y.

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pafchek, R.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saida, T.

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, and Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar ligtwave circuits," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 833-839 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiershausen, W.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Itoh, T. Saida, Y. Hida, M. Ishii, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, and A. Sugita, "Large reduction of singlemode-fibre coupling loss in 1.5% �? planar lightwave circuits using spot-size converters," Electron. Lett. 38, 72-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Jacobs, R. Zengerle, K. Faltin, and W. Weiershausen, "Vertically tapered spot size transformers by a simple masking technique," Electron. Lett. 31, 794-796 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, and R. Pafchek, "Compact and low-loss integrated box-like passband multiplexer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 918-920 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Other (3)

Y. Inoue, "Recent advances in silica-based PLCs," in 2007 IEEE LEOS Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2007), paper TuC3.
[CrossRef]

R. Brainard, B. Fondeur, and D. J. Dougherty, "Advances in planar lightwave circuits for wavelength routing applications," in Technical Digest of Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Nanophotonics 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper IMB1.

B. Fondeur, R. Brainard, D. Dougherty, and J. Bhardwaj, "Advances in PLC technology for DWDM applications," in Proceedings of 32nd European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2006 (Société de l�??Electricité, de l�??Electronique et des Technologies de l�??Information et de la Communication, 2006), paper Tu4.4.1.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic configuration of our MZI-synchronized AWG.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Schematic illustration of SSCs used in our MZI-synchronized AWG. (b) SEM image of the fabricated SSCs. This image is before embedded with overcladding. Broken lines indicate outlines of the laterally tapered core.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Numerical calculation results of DC gap width vs. excess loss and 0.5-dB passband in our MZI-synchronized AWG. (b) Calculated mode fields in DC and the output waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). All 40-channel transmittance spectra, and (b) their enlarged overlay of the fabricated MZI-synchronized AWG.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PDL of the fabricated MZI-synchronized AWG for all 40 channels.

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