Abstract

We report the development of an in-situ aerosol detection system capable of rapidly measuring dual-wavelength laser-induced fluorescence spectra of single particles on the fly using a single spectrometer and a single 32-anode photomultiplier array. We demonstrate the capability of this system with both reference samples and outdoor air. We present spectra from separate excitation wavelengths from the same particle that demonstrate improved discrimination capability compared with only using one excitation wavelength.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, 2nd ed., (Wiley, New York: 2006), Chap. 24, pp. 1054-1091.
  3. C. A. Pope and D. W. Dockery, "Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 56, 709-742 (2006).
  4. D. W. Griffin, "Atmsospheric Movement of Microorganisms in Clouds of Desert Dust and Implications for Human Health," Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 459-477 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. A. Pope, "Respiratory Hospital Admissions Associated with PM10 Pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys," Arch Environ. Health 46, 90-97 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, "Design of an Instrument for Real-Time Detection of Bioaerosols using Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Aerodynamic Size and Intrinsic Fluorescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28, 471-482 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Sivaprakasam, A. L. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. D. Eversole, "Multiple UV Wavelength Excitation and Fluorescence of Bioaerosols," Opt. Express 12, 4457-4466 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Kaye, W. R. Stanley, E. Hirst, E. V. Foote, K. L. Baxter, and S. J. Barrington, "Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor," Opt. Express 13, 3583-3593 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. Vanreenen, "An Ink Jet Aerosol Generator," J. Aerosol Sci. t29, S965-S966 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007

D. W. Griffin, "Atmsospheric Movement of Microorganisms in Clouds of Desert Dust and Implications for Human Health," Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 459-477 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. A. Pope and D. W. Dockery, "Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 56, 709-742 (2006).

2005

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kaye, W. R. Stanley, E. Hirst, E. V. Foote, K. L. Baxter, and S. J. Barrington, "Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor," Opt. Express 13, 3583-3593 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Sivaprakasam, A. L. Huston, C. Scotto, and J. D. Eversole, "Multiple UV Wavelength Excitation and Fluorescence of Bioaerosols," Opt. Express 12, 4457-4466 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, "Design of an Instrument for Real-Time Detection of Bioaerosols using Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Aerodynamic Size and Intrinsic Fluorescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28, 471-482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

C. A. Pope, "Respiratory Hospital Admissions Associated with PM10 Pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys," Arch Environ. Health 46, 90-97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrington, S. J.

Baxter, K. L.

Bettge, T.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J. R.

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, J. G.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buja, L.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. T.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dockery, D. W.

C. A. Pope and D. W. Dockery, "Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 56, 709-742 (2006).

Eversole, J. D.

Feather, G.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, G. L.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Foote, E. V.

Fu, Q.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, D. W.

D. W. Griffin, "Atmsospheric Movement of Microorganisms in Clouds of Desert Dust and Implications for Human Health," Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 459-477 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hairston, P. P.

P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, "Design of an Instrument for Real-Time Detection of Bioaerosols using Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Aerodynamic Size and Intrinsic Fluorescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28, 471-482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, E.

Ho, J.

P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, "Design of an Instrument for Real-Time Detection of Bioaerosols using Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Aerodynamic Size and Intrinsic Fluorescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28, 471-482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holler, S.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huston, A. L.

Jeys, T. H.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, P.

Kiehl, J. T.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mayo, M. W.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nachman, P.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niles, S.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orr, C. S.

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y. L.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pendleton, J. D.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pope, C. A.

C. A. Pope and D. W. Dockery, "Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 56, 709-742 (2006).

C. A. Pope, "Respiratory Hospital Admissions Associated with PM10 Pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys," Arch Environ. Health 46, 90-97 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Primmerman, C. A.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quant, F. R.

P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, "Design of an Instrument for Real-Time Detection of Bioaerosols using Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Aerodynamic Size and Intrinsic Fluorescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28, 471-482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, F. L.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, G. S.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanches, A.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scotto, C.

Sikka, D. R.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivaprakasam, V.

Stanley, W. R.

Washington, W. M.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wild, M.

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. S.

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. Technol.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, P. Nachman, J. D. Pendleton, G. L. Fernandez, M. W. Mayo, and J. G. Bruno, "Fluorescence Particle Counter for Detecting Airborne Bacteria and other Biological Particles," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23, 653-664 (1995).
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P. P. Hairston, J. Ho, and F. R. Quant, "Design of an Instrument for Real-Time Detection of Bioaerosols using Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Aerodynamic Size and Intrinsic Fluorescence," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 28, 471-482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan, V. Boutou, J. R. Bottiger, S. S. Zhang, J. P. Wolf, R. K. Chang, "A Puff of Air Sorts Bioaerosols for Pathogen Identification," Aerosol Sci. Technol. 38, 598-602 (2004).
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Arch Environ. Health

C. A. Pope, "Respiratory Hospital Admissions Associated with PM10 Pollution in Utah, Salt Lake, and Cache Valleys," Arch Environ. Health 46, 90-97 (1991).
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Atmos. Environ.

R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, Y. L. Pan, and R. K. Chang, "Fluorescence Spectra of Atmospheric Aerosol at Adelphi, Maryland, USA: Measurement and Classifcation of Single Particles Containing Organic Carbon," Atmos. Environ. 38, 1657-1672 (2004).
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Clin. Microbiol. Rev.

D. W. Griffin, "Atmsospheric Movement of Microorganisms in Clouds of Desert Dust and Implications for Human Health," Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 459-477 (2007).
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Field Anal. Chem. Technol.

F. L. Reyes, T. H. Jeys, N. R. Newbury, C. A. Primmerman, G. S. Rowe, and A. Sanches, "Bio-aerosol Fluorescence Sensor," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 240-248 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hill, R. G. Pinnick, S. Niles, Y. L. Pan, S. Holler, R. K. Chang, J. Bottiger, B. T. Chen, C. S. Orr, and G. Feather, "Real-time Measurement of Fluorescence Spectra from Single Airborne Biological Particles," Field Anal. Chem. Technol. 3, 221-239 (1999).
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J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc.

C. A. Pope and D. W. Dockery, "Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 56, 709-742 (2006).

J. Geophys. Res.

Y. L. Pan, R. G. Pinnick, S. C. Hill, J. M. Rosen, and R. K. Chang, "Single-Particle Laser-Induced-Fluorescence Spectra of Biological and Other Organic-Carbon Aerosols in the Atmosphere: Measurements at New Haven, Connecticut, and Las Cruces, New Mexico," J. Geophys. Res. 112, D24S19 (2007).
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Opt. Express

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA)

V. Ramanathan, C. Chung, D. Kim, T. Bettge, L. Buja, J. T. Kiehl, W. M. Washington, Q. Fu, D. R. Sikka, and M. Wild, "Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences (USA) 102, 5326-5333 (2005).
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Other

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, 2nd ed., (Wiley, New York: 2006), Chap. 24, pp. 1054-1091.

J. R. Bottiger, P. J. Deluca, E. W. Stuebing, and D. R. Vanreenen, "An Ink Jet Aerosol Generator," J. Aerosol Sci. t29, S965-S966 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the detection system. Particles are drawn through the concentrator, and then through a nozzle that focuses the particles to a jet (approximately 300 µm in diameter). When two crossed diode lasers and detectors (not shown) detect a particle in the trigger volume, the two UV lasers fire in rapid succession. An image-preserving Schwartzchild objective focuses the scattering and emission from the particle to a split filter positioned to block the appropriate scattered light from the successive laser pulses at the input slit of the spectrograph. A 32-anode PMT records the two spectra dispersed by the spectrometer in rapid succession.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fifteen sequential normalized single particle spectra of E. coli (thin solid lines) and the average spectrum (thick dotted lines) using (A) 263-nm excitation and (B) 351-nm excitation. Approximate particle size was 6 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dual-wavelength laser excitation spectra from laboratory samples: (A) and (B) show how bovine albumin and aged tryptophan are easier to discriminate using spectra from 351-nm excitation; (C) and (D) show how aged tryptophan and E. coli are easier to discriminate using spectra from 263-nm excitation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single particle fluorescence spectra of 50 consecutive aerosol particles sampled from ambient air. The second order of the grating starts at 527 nm for the 263-nm excitation spectra.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized single particle fluorescence spectra from aerosol particles from ambient air (A) and (B) show two particles where 351-nm excitation offers improved discrimination (C) and (D) show another two particles where 263-nm excitation offers improved discrimination. The 527 nm peak in (A) is the 263-nm scattered light on the second order of the grating.

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