Abstract

In this paper we report the fabrication and characterization of waveguide coupled square resonators with modified corners, in particular the corner-cut square resonator. We employ rigorous FDTD analysis to identify an optimal corner-cut length and compare this with our experimental findings. Two- and three dimensional FDTD analysis is also used to optimize the coupling gap and the width of the coupling waveguide. Fabrication of the square microresonators on silicon-on-insulators by conventional E-beam lithography and dry etching techniques will be discussed in detail. The characterization of these corner-cut square microresonators shows good performance and excellent agreement with the rigorous electromagnetic simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. References and links
    [CrossRef]
  2. W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Y. Fong and A. W. Poon, "Planar corner-cut square microcavities: ray optics and FDTD analysis," Opt. Express 12, 4864-4874 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Z. Huang,W. H. Guo, and Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Wiersig, "Boundary element method for resonances in dielectric microcavities," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 53-60 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. L. Pan and R. K. Chang, "Highly efficient prism coupling to whispering gallery modes of a square microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 487-489 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. W. Poon, F. Courvoisier, and R. K. Chang, "Multimode resonances in square-shaped optical microcavities," Opt. Lett. 26, 632-634 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Shi and D. W. Prather, "Lasing dynamics of a silicon photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Express 15, 10294-10302 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Li and A.W. Poon, "Experimental demonstration of waveguide-coupled round-cornered octagonal microresonators in silicon nitride," Opt. Lett. 30, 546-548 (2005).
  14. FastFDTD, EM Photonics Inc, http://wwwemphotonics.com
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, "High efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 27,1601-1603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, and A. I. Nosich, "Spectral shift and Q-change of circular and square- shaped optical microcavity modes due to periodic sidewall surface roughness," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1792-1796 (2004).

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Li and A.W. Poon, "Experimental demonstration of waveguide-coupled round-cornered octagonal microresonators in silicon nitride," Opt. Lett. 30, 546-548 (2005).

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wiersig, "Boundary element method for resonances in dielectric microcavities," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 53-60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Pan and R. K. Chang, "Highly efficient prism coupling to whispering gallery modes of a square microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 487-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

A. W. Poon, F. Courvoisier, and R. K. Chang, "Multimode resonances in square-shaped optical microcavities," Opt. Lett. 26, 632-634 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Huang,W. H. Guo, and Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

Benyattou, T.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bontoux, P.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boriskina, S. V.

Braun, I.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Briere, M.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

Y. L. Pan and R. K. Chang, "Highly efficient prism coupling to whispering gallery modes of a square microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 487-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, F. Courvoisier, and R. K. Chang, "Multimode resonances in square-shaped optical microcavities," Opt. Lett. 26, 632-634 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Courvoisier, F.

Drouard, E.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fong, C. Y.

Gaffiot, F.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, W. H.

Y. Z. Huang,W. H. Guo, and Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.-H.

W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Huang,W. H. Guo, and Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-Z.

W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ihlein, G.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, A.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. J.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laeri, F.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Lu, Q.-Y.

W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J.

Nöckel, J. U.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nosich, A. I.

O???Connor, I.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y. L.

Y. L. Pan and R. K. Chang, "Highly efficient prism coupling to whispering gallery modes of a square microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 487-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Poon, A.W.

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D.

Rojo-Romeo, P.

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz-Ekloff, G.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schüth, F.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

Sharkawy, A.

Shi, S.

Venkataraman, S.

Vietze, U.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. M.

Y. Z. Huang,W. H. Guo, and Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wei??, ??.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wiersig, J.

J. Wiersig, "Boundary element method for resonances in dielectric microcavities," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 53-60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wöhrle, D.

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.-J.

W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. Braun, G. Ihlein, F. Laeri, J. U. Nöckel, G. Schulz-Ekloff, F. Schüth, U. Vietze, �?. Wei�?, and D. Wöhrle, "Hexagonal microlasers based on organic dyes in nanoporous crystals," Appl. Phys. B 70, 335-343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. L. Pan and R. K. Chang, "Highly efficient prism coupling to whispering gallery modes of a square microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 487-489 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Manolatou, M. J. Khan, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1322-1331 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Z. Huang,W. H. Guo, and Q. M. Wang, "Analysis and numerical simulation of eigenmode characteristics for semiconductor lasers with an equilateral triangle micro-resonator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 100-107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

W.-H. Guo, Y.-Z. Huang, Q.-Y. Lu, and L.-J. Yu, "Whispering-gallery-like modes in square resonators," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 1106-1110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Kazmierczak, M. Briere, E. Drouard, P. Bontoux, P. Rojo-Romeo, I. O�??Connor, X. Letartre, F. Gaffiot, R. Orobtchouk, and T. Benyattou, "Design, Simulation, and Characterization of a passive optical add-drop filter in silicon-on-insulator technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1447-1449 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Wiersig, "Boundary element method for resonances in dielectric microcavities," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 53-60 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

FastFDTD, EM Photonics Inc, http://wwwemphotonics.com
[CrossRef]

References and links
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of waveguide-coupled corner-cut square microresonator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)-(h). Three dimensional FDTD simulation of corner-cut square resonator with a resonator length L=2 µm, waveguide width w=280 nm, air gap g=200nm, height of 260 nm, and various corner-cut lengths.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Magnetic field for resonance (a) I and (b) II+III, calculated using FDTD technique.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM micrograph of (a) J-Coupler and (b) square microresonator with a 100 nm corner-cut length. The inset in (a) is a zoomed out image of the device.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectrum of the drop port showing a resonance at about 1305 nm for various cornercut lengths, (a) experimental and (b) simulation. Excellent agreement between simulations and experimental data can be noted. Inset in (b) shows the mode profile for this resonance.

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