Abstract

Histopathological imaging of tissues often requires extensive sample preparation including fixation and staining in order to highlight characteristic alterations associated with diseases. Herein, we report an integrated spectro-microscopy approach based on a combination of multi-modal multi-photon imaging and Raman micro-spectroscopy and demonstrate label-free characterization of the structure-constituent correlation of porcine skin. The multi-modal imaging allows the visualization of dermatological features whereas Raman micro-spectroscopy enables the identification of their �??molecular fingerprints�??. By obtaining both structural and molecular-level information of tissue constituents, this integrated approach can offer new insight into the patho-physiological status of tissues.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Strupler, A. M. Pena, M. Hernest, P. L. Tharaux, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, "Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues," Opt. Express 15, 4054-4065 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 2798-2804 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. Ogilvie, E. Beaurepaire, A. Alexandrou, and M. Joffre, "Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 480-482 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Heinrich, C. Meusburger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "CARS microscopy in a wide-field geometry with nanosecond pulses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 675-679 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Moreaux, O. Sandre, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, "Membrane imaging by simultaneous second-harmonic generation and two-photon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 320-322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Sun, T. Shilagard, B. Bell, M. Motamedi, and G. Vargas, "In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue," Opt. Express 12, 2478-2486 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. M. Zhuo, J. X. Chen, T. S. Luo, D. S. Zou, and J. J. Zhao, "Multimode nonlinear optical imaging of the dermis in ex vivo human skin based on the combination of multichannel mode and Lambda mode," Opt. Express 14, 7810-7820 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).
  23. A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014-11019 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Ducimetiere, J. Richard, and F. Cambien, "The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Paris Prospective Study," Int. J. Obes. 10, 229-240 (1986).
  25. M. M. Avram, "Cellulite: a review of its physiology and treatment " J. Cosmetic Laser Therapy 6, 181-185 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. J. Singer, and R. A. F. Clark, "Cutaneous Wound Healing," New Engl. J. Med. 341, 738-746 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Strupler, A. M. Pena, M. Hernest, P. L. Tharaux, J. L. Martin, E. Beaurepaire, and M. C. Schanne-Klein, "Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues," Opt. Express 15, 4054-4065 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Sun, T. Shilagard, B. Bell, M. Motamedi, and G. Vargas, "In vivo multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of mucosal tissue," Opt. Express 12, 2478-2486 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Avram, "Cellulite: a review of its physiology and treatment " J. Cosmetic Laser Therapy 6, 181-185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014-11019 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Singer, and R. A. F. Clark, "Cutaneous Wound Healing," New Engl. J. Med. 341, 738-746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. Ducimetiere, J. Richard, and F. Cambien, "The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Paris Prospective Study," Int. J. Obes. 10, 229-240 (1986).

Alexandrou, A.

Avram, M. M.

M. M. Avram, "Cellulite: a review of its physiology and treatment " J. Cosmetic Laser Therapy 6, 181-185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barr, H.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

Bell, B.

Bernet, S.

C. Heinrich, C. Meusburger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "CARS microscopy in a wide-field geometry with nanosecond pulses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 675-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard-Desce, M.

Book, L. D.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, Y.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruining, H. A.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bugianesi, E.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cambien, F.

P. Ducimetiere, J. Richard, and F. Cambien, "The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Paris Prospective Study," Int. J. Obes. 10, 229-240 (1986).

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Cerrelli, F.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. X.

Cheng, J. X.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choo-Smith, L. P.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Christie, R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. A. F.

A. J. Singer, and R. A. F. Clark, "Cutaneous Wound Healing," New Engl. J. Med. 341, 738-746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cote, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

diTomaso, E.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ducimetiere, P.

P. Ducimetiere, J. Richard, and F. Cambien, "The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Paris Prospective Study," Int. J. Obes. 10, 229-240 (1986).

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, H. G. M.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Endtz, H. P.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forlani, G.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H.

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, C.

C. Heinrich, C. Meusburger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "CARS microscopy in a wide-field geometry with nanosecond pulses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 675-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hernest, M.

Heule, F.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holtom, G. R.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Huang, Y. S.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huff, T. B.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hyman, B. T.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

Kano, H.

Karashima, T.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, G. S.

A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kros, J. M.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lenzi, M.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. A.

A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T. S.

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Manini, R.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, G.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

McKee, T.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melchionda, N.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mertz, J.

Meusburger, C.

C. Heinrich, C. Meusburger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "CARS microscopy in a wide-field geometry with nanosecond pulses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 675-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Millard, A. C.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Mohler, W. A.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Moreaux, L.

Motamedi, M.

Natale, S.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. Y.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogilvie, J. P.

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pena, A. M.

Pluen, A.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puppels, G. J.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richard, J.

P. Ducimetiere, J. Richard, and F. Cambien, "The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Paris Prospective Study," Int. J. Obes. 10, 229-240 (1986).

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Heinrich, C. Meusburger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "CARS microscopy in a wide-field geometry with nanosecond pulses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 675-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rizzetto, M.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. S.

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sandre, O.

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

Seed, B.

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, R. Y.

Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shilagard, T.

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Singer, A. J.

A. J. Singer, and R. A. F. Clark, "Cutaneous Wound Healing," New Engl. J. Med. 341, 738-746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strupler, M.

Sun, J.

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Tharaux, P. L.

Tromberg, B. J.

A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014-11019 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanni, E.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, G.

Villanova, N.

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. F.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, A.

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014-11019 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. J.

Zhuo, S. M.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zou, D. S.

Zoumi, A.

A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014-11019 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biochemistry (1)

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "Molecular-level investigation of the structure, transformation, and bioactivity of single living fission yeast cells by time- and space-resolved Raman spectroscopy," Biochemistry 44, 10009-10019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophys J. (1)

A. Zoumi, X. A. Lu, G. S. Kassab, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging coronary artery microstructure using second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence microscopy," Biophys J. 87, 2778-2786 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (2)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, "Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues," Biophys. J. 82, 493-508 (2002).

Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, R. Y. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biopolymers (1)

L. P. Choo-Smith, H. G. M. Edwards, H. P. Endtz, J. M. Kros, F. Heule, H. Barr, J. S. Robinson, H. A. Bruining, and G. J. Puppels, "Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: From proof of principle to clinical implementation," Biopolymers 67, 1-9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hepatology (1)

G. Marchesini, E. Bugianesi, G. Forlani, F. Cerrelli, M. Lenzi, R. Manini, S. Natale, E. Vanni, N. Villanova, N. Melchionda, and M. Rizzetto, "Nonalcoholic fatty liver, steatohepatitis, and the metabolic syndrome," Hepatology 37, 917-923 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. F. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Obes. (1)

P. Ducimetiere, J. Richard, and F. Cambien, "The pattern of subcutaneous fat distribution in middle-aged men and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Paris Prospective Study," Int. J. Obes. 10, 229-240 (1986).

J. Cosmetic Laser Therapy (1)

M. M. Avram, "Cellulite: a review of its physiology and treatment " J. Cosmetic Laser Therapy 6, 181-185 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

C. Heinrich, C. Meusburger, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, "CARS microscopy in a wide-field geometry with nanosecond pulses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 37, 675-679 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1368-1376 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Medicine (1)

E. Brown, T. McKee, E. diTomaso, A. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, "Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation," Nat. Medicine 9, 796-800 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, "Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy," Nature 418, 512-514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

New Engl. J. Med. (1)

A. J. Singer, and R. A. F. Clark, "Cutaneous Wound Healing," New Engl. J. Med. 341, 738-746 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (3)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoumi, A. Yeh, and B. J. Tromberg, "Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 11014-11019 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multiphoton-excited native fluorescence and second harmonic generation," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7075-7080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics