Abstract

We present a new method for identifying and segmenting the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) images of the human retina. Contrary to previous, intensity based segmentation algorithms, our method uses an intrinsic tissue property of the RPE: its depolarizing, or polarization scrambling effect on backscattered light. Two different segmentation algorithms are presented and discussed: a simpler algorithm based on retardation data, and a more sophisticated algorithm based on local variations of the polarization state calculated from averaged Stokes vector elements. By using a state of the art spectral domain PS-OCT instrument, we demonstrate the method in healthy and diseased eyes.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  26. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, "Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors," Opt. Express 15, 18033-18049 (2007).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-26-18033.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4611.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-21-8532.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fernandez, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10217.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Ahlers, C.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beaton, S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bower, B. A.

Cense, B.

Chan, R. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Choi, S.

Cortez, R.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

deBoer, J. F.

Dejaco-Ruhswurm, I.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougall, J.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, A. E.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Fernandez, D. C.

Findl, O.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fous, A.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golbaz, I.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotzinger, E.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10217.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, T. R.

Hirn, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10217.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jiao, S. L.

Jones, S. M.

Joo, C.

Kaluzny, J. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminski, S.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kemp, N. J.

Kolar, S.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaBree, L. D.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Michels, S.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J. S.

Olivier, S. S.

Park, B. H.

Park, J.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10217.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruente, C.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. C. Fernandez, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richine, L.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander, H. G.

Sadda, S. R.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salinas, H. M.

Sampson, D. D.

Sattmann, H.

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikorski, B.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simader, C.

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorpik, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, D. M.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, G.

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todorovic, M.

vanGemert, M. J. C.

Vass, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, A. C.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H. V.

Wang, L. V.

Werner, J. S.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wollstein, G.

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z. Q.

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, G.

Yasuno, Y.

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaatari, H. N.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhao, M. T.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Michels, M. Pircher, W. Geitzenauer, C. Simader, E. Gotzinger, O. Findl, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 204-209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

H. Ishikawa, D. M. Stein, G. Wollstein, S. Beaton, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Schuman, "Macular segmentation with optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 2012-2017 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, C. Skorpik, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of birefringent properties of keratoconus corneas by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48, 3551-3558 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "Thickness and birefringence of healthy retinal nerve fiber layer tissue measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 2606-2612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, M. Yamanari, T. Iwasaki, A. E. Elsner, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Imaging polarimetry in age-related macular degeneration," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49, 2661-2667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, B. Baumann, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanari, M. Miura, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Phase retardation measurement of retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Jiao and L. H. V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, B. Sikorski, T. Bajraszewski, V. J. Srinivasan, A. Szkulmowska, J. J. Kaluzny, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Kowalczyk, "Analysis of posterior retinal layers in spectral optical coherence tomography images of the normal retina and retinal pathologies," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041207 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophoton. (1)

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, C. Hirn, C. Vass, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence evaluated with polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and scanning laser polarimetry: A comparison," J. Biophoton. 1, 129-139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (2)

S. R. Sadda, Z. Q. Wu, A. C. Walsh, L. Richine, J. Dougall, R. Cortez, and L. D. LaBree, "Errors in retinal thickness measurements obtained by optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 113, 285-293 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ahlers, I. Golbaz, G. Stock, A. Fous, S. Kolar, C. Pruente, and U. Schmidt-Erfurth, "Time Course of Morphologic Effects on Different Retinal Compartments after Ranibizumab Therapy in Age-related Macular Degeneration," Ophthalmology 115, e39-e46 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-13-780.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5940.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. Rylander, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-12-4611.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. T. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-21-8532.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mujat, R. C. Chan, B. Cense, B. H. Park, C. Joo, T. Akkin, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness map determined from optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 9480-9491 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-23-9480.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fernandez, H. M. Salinas, and C. A. Puliafito, "Automated detection of retinal layer structures on optical coherence tomography images," Opt. Express 13, 10200-10216 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10200.
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-25-10217.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, T. R. Hillman, and D. D. Sampson, "Detection of multiple scattering in optical coherence tomography using the spatial distribution of Stokes vectors," Opt. Express 15, 18033-18049 (2007).http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-26-18033.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. (1)

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B-Opt.Phys. 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

B. Bouma and G. Tearney, Handbook of optical coherence tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

M. F. Marmor, "Retinal pigment epithelium," in Ophthalmology, M. Yanoff, and J. S. Duker, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, 2004), pp. 775-778.

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: AVI (2703 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3317 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (2080 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (2969 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PS-OCT B-scan images of human fovea in vivo. (a) Intensity (log scale); (b) retardation (color bar: 0°–90°); (c) Stokes vector element U (color bar: -1–+1); (d) degree of polarization uniformity DOPU (color bar: 0–1). To avoid erroneous polarization data, areas below a certain intensity threshold are displayed in gray. Image size: 15° (horizontal) ×0.75 mm (vertical, optical distance). Rectangular windows in (b) (not drawn to scale) indicate positions where statistics was performed (cf. Fig. 2).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Histograms of retardation (a, b) and Stokes vector element (c, d) distributions in selected evaluation windows (cf. Fig. 1(b)). (a, c) Data from window A (IS/OS); (b, d) data from window B (RPE).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

RPE segmentation by PS-OCT in a healthy fovea. (a) Retardation SD based algorithm (1); (b) Stokes vector based algorithm (2). The segmented RPE is indicated by red color overlaid over the intensity image. (Same data set as Fig. 1) (c) Comparison of segmentation algorithms. Blue: data points segmented by both algorithms; red: data points segmented only by algorithm 1; green: data points segmented only by algorithm 2. (d) Effect of evaluation window size on performance of algorithm 1 (enlargement of central part of other figures); evaluation window sizes: see text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PS-OCT images of retina with AMD. (a) Reflectivity; (b) retardation (color bar: 0°–90°); (c) DOPU (color bar: 0–1); (d) reflectivity overlaid with segmented RPE (retardation SD method). Image size: 15° (horizontal) ×1 mm (vertical).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

En face map of thickness of segmented layer obtained from a retina with AMD and RPE atrophy (same data set as Fig. 4). Color bar: 0–150 µm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Frame no. 49 of an animation of a 3 dimensional volume rendered data set from a retina with AMD. The gray value corresponds to the backscattered intensity, the red layer which appears during the movie corresponds to segmented RPE layer (Media 1). (b). Frame no. 10 of an animation of the same volume rendered data set, showing only the segmented RPE layer (Media 2).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

PS-OCT of a retina with a pseudo-vitelliform pattern dystrophy. (a) Reflectivity; (b) retardation (color bar: 0°–90°); (c) DOPU (color bar: 0–1); (d) reflectivity overlaid with segmented RPE (retardation SD method). Image size: 15° (horizontal) ×0.75 mm (vertical).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

En face map of the thickness of segmented layer obtained in a retina with pseudovitelliform pattern dystrophy. Color bar: 0–200 µm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Animation of a volume rendered data set from a retina with pseudo-vitelliform pattern dystrophy. (a) Partial volume rendering of intensity data (gray) and segmented RPE (red) (Media 3). (b) Volume rendering of entire segmented RPE (Media 4).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

B-scan of RPE atrophy: comparison of segmentation algorithms. (a) retardation SD based algorithm; (b) Stokes vector based algorithm; (c) retardation image; (d) Comparison of segmentation algorithms. Blue: data points segmented by both algorithms; red: data points segmented only by algorithm 1; green: data points segmented only by algorithm 2.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = ( I Q U V ) = ( A x 2 + A y 2 A x 2 A y 2 2 A x A y cos Δ ϕ 2 A x A y sin Δ ϕ ) ,
D O P U = Q m 2 + U m 2 + V m 2 ,

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