Abstract

We report the first two-beam coupling investigation of the surface-induced photorefractive effect (SIPRE) in optically twistable nematic liquid crystal cell. The unique space-charge field of SIPRE is exploited to achieve optical tuning of the photorefractive gain. A reconfigurable photoaligning substrate is used to adjust the twist angle, which is proved to be a control parameter for the photorefractive gain. The amplitude of the optical modulation increases gradually with the twist. Its phase shift changes from 0° to 90° with the polarization state of the two interfering beams. These results pave the way to the all-optical control of the photorefractive gain.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  20. X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
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  23. S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
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  32. C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  35. V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  36. V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. Kesti and A. Golemme "Photorefractive nematic liquid crystals with gain of constant sign under alternating voltage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Korneychuk, O. G. Tereshchenko, Y. A. Reznikov, V. Y. Reshetnyak, and K. D. Singer, "Hidden surface photorefractive gratings in a nematic-liquid crystal cell in the absence of a deposited alignment layer," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1007-1011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Ostroverkhova and W. E. Moerner "Organic photorefractives: mechanisms, materials, and applications," Chem. Rev.  104, 3267-3314 (2004) and reference therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Optical two-beam coupling for a surface-induced photorefractive effect in undoped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 2369-2371 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. J. Fuller, C. J. Walsh, Y. Y. Zhao, and M. R. Wasielewski, "Hybrid photorefractive material composed of layered conjugated polymer and dye-dope liquid crystal films," Chem. Mater. 14, 952-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Honma, A. Okamoto, and Y. Takayama "Photorefractive duplex two-wave mixing and all-optical deflection switch," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 974-981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid-crystals doped with electron-donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794-1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

P. N. Prasad and B. A. Reinhardt "Is there a role for organic materials chemistry in nonlinear optics and photonics?" Chem. Mater. 2, 660-669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Sutter and P. Günter, "Photorefractive gratings in the organic-crystal 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine doped with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane" J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274-2278 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (2)

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov "Efficient unstationary holographic recording in photorefractive crystals under an external alternating electric field," Opt. Commun. 53, 292-295 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Refregier, L. Solimar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, "Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments" J. Appl. Phys. 58, 45-57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arbuzov, A. V.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnik, M. I.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Besson, C.

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bongrand, I.

Brignon, A.

Chao, E.

Chen, K.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Optical two-beam coupling for a surface-induced photorefractive effect in undoped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 2369-2371 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, G.

Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, D. R.

Francescangeli, O.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, M. J.

M. J. Fuller, C. J. Walsh, Y. Y. Zhao, and M. R. Wasielewski, "Hybrid photorefractive material composed of layered conjugated polymer and dye-dope liquid crystal films," Chem. Mater. 14, 952-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glushchenko, A. V.

Golemme, A.

T. Kesti and A. Golemme "Photorefractive nematic liquid crystals with gain of constant sign under alternating voltage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, A. T.

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M. Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günter, P.

Ho, J.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honma, S.

Hou, C. F.

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Huang, D. D.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

A. Brignon, I. Bongrand, B. Loiseaux, and J. P. Huignard, "Signal-beam amplification by two-wave mixing in a liquid-crystal light valve," Opt. Lett. 22, 1855-1857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Refregier, L. Solimar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, "Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments" J. Appl. Phys. 58, 45-57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

Kajzar, F.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawara, T.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kesti, T.

T. Kesti and A. Golemme "Photorefractive nematic liquid crystals with gain of constant sign under alternating voltage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khazimullin, M.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M. Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korneychuk, P.

Korneychuk, P. P.

Kozenkov, V.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, L.

Loiseaux, B.

Lucchetti, L.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matczyszyn, K.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merlin, J.

Miniewicz, A.

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

O. Ostroverkhova and W. E. Moerner "Organic photorefractives: mechanisms, materials, and applications," Chem. Rev.  104, 3267-3314 (2004) and reference therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muravski, A.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, A.

Ono, H.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhova, O.

O. Ostroverkhova and W. E. Moerner "Organic photorefractives: mechanisms, materials, and applications," Chem. Rev.  104, 3267-3314 (2004) and reference therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagliusi, P.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Optical two-beam coupling for a surface-induced photorefractive effect in undoped liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 2369-2371 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palto, S. P.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pauliat, G.

Pei, Y. B.

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M. P.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov "Efficient unstationary holographic recording in photorefractive crystals under an external alternating electric field," Opt. Commun. 53, 292-295 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pikin, S.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

P. N. Prasad and B. A. Reinhardt "Is there a role for organic materials chemistry in nonlinear optics and photonics?" Chem. Mater. 2, 660-669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, C.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prudnikova, E.

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rajbenbach, H.

Ph. Refregier, L. Solimar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, "Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments" J. Appl. Phys. 58, 45-57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, Ph.

Ph. Refregier, L. Solimar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, "Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments" J. Appl. Phys. 58, 45-57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

P. N. Prasad and B. A. Reinhardt "Is there a role for organic materials chemistry in nonlinear optics and photonics?" Chem. Mater. 2, 660-669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

Reshetnyak, V. Y.

Reznikov, Y.

Reznikov, Y. A.

Rosen, G.

Saleh, M. A.

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M. Y.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M. Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoni, F.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Slussarenko, S. S.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solimar, L.

Ph. Refregier, L. Solimar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, "Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments" J. Appl. Phys. 58, 45-57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, S. I.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov "Efficient unstationary holographic recording in photorefractive crystals under an external alternating electric field," Opt. Commun. 53, 292-295 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. D.

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

Takada, H.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takatsu, H.

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

Tereshchenko, O. G.

Twieg, R. J.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Umanskii, B. A.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Verevochnikov, A.

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Villing, A.

Walsh, C. J.

M. J. Fuller, C. J. Walsh, Y. Y. Zhao, and M. R. Wasielewski, "Hybrid photorefractive material composed of layered conjugated polymer and dye-dope liquid crystal films," Chem. Mater. 14, 952-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wasielewski, M. R.

M. J. Fuller, C. J. Walsh, Y. Y. Zhao, and M. R. Wasielewski, "Hybrid photorefractive material composed of layered conjugated polymer and dye-dope liquid crystal films," Chem. Mater. 14, 952-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid-crystals doped with electron-donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794-1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid-crystals doped with electron-donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794-1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, M.

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M. Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

Yao, F. F.

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid-crystals doped with electron-donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794-1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. L.

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. Y.

M. J. Fuller, C. J. Walsh, Y. Y. Zhao, and M. R. Wasielewski, "Hybrid photorefractive material composed of layered conjugated polymer and dye-dope liquid crystal films," Chem. Mater. 14, 952-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, "Photorefractive liquid crystals," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 139 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

X. D. Sun, Y. B. Pei, F. F. Yao, J. L. Zhang, and C. F. Hou "Optical amplification in multilayer photorefractive liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett.  90, 201115 (2007) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

I. C. Khoo, J. Ding, Y. Zhang, K. Chen, and A. Diaz, "Supra-nonlinear photorefractive response of single-walled carbon nanotube- and C-60-doped nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3587-3589 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kesti and A. Golemme "Photorefractive nematic liquid crystals with gain of constant sign under alternating voltage," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011917 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Highly efficient liquid crystal based diffraction grating induced by polarization holograms at the aligning surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

M. J. Fuller, C. J. Walsh, Y. Y. Zhao, and M. R. Wasielewski, "Hybrid photorefractive material composed of layered conjugated polymer and dye-dope liquid crystal films," Chem. Mater. 14, 952-953 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad and B. A. Reinhardt "Is there a role for organic materials chemistry in nonlinear optics and photonics?" Chem. Mater. 2, 660-669 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev (1)

O. Ostroverkhova and W. E. Moerner "Organic photorefractives: mechanisms, materials, and applications," Chem. Rev.  104, 3267-3314 (2004) and reference therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

X. D. Sun, F. F. Yao, Y. B. Pei, and J. L. Zhang "Light controlled diffraction gratings in C-60-doped nematic liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Refregier, L. Solimar, H. Rajbenbach, and J. P. Huignard, "Two-beam coupling in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals with moving grating: theory and experiments" J. Appl. Phys. 58, 45-57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Liq. Cryst. (1)

V. Chigrinov, E. Prudnikova, V. Kozenkov, H. Kwok, H. Akiyama, T. Kawara, H. Takada, and H. Takatsu "Synthesis and properties of azo dye aligning layers for liquid crystal cells," Liq. Cryst. 29, 1321-1327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, C. Provenzano, S. P. Palto, M. I. Barnik, A. V. Arbuzov, and B. A. Umanskii, "A nematic liquid crystal as an amplifying replica of a holographic polarization grating," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 449, 147-160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Bartkiewicz, K. Matczyszyn, A. Miniewicz, and F. Kajzar, "High gain of light in photoconducting polymer-nematic liquid crystal hybrid structures," Opt. Commun. 187, 257 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov "Efficient unstationary holographic recording in photorefractive crystals under an external alternating electric field," Opt. Commun. 53, 292-295 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E (3)

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, A. Muravski, H. S. Kwok, H. Takada, H. Akiyama, and H. Takatsu, "Anchoring properties of photoaligned azo-dye materials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 061702 (2003) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

V. Chigrinov, S. Pikin, A. Verevochnikov, V. Kozenkov, M. Khazimullin, J. Ho, D. D. Huang, and H. S. Kwok, "Diffusion model of photoaligning in azo-dye layers," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061713 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, "Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, M. V. Wood, B. D. Guenther, P. H. Chen, F. Simoni, S. S. Slussarenko, O. Francescangeli, and L. Lucchetti, "Dye-doped photorefractive liquid crystals for dynamic and storage holographic grating formation and spatial light modulation," Proc. IEEE 87, 1897-1911 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, "High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid-crystals doped with electron-donor and acceptor molecules," Science 270, 1794-1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. G. de Gennes, and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, 2nd edition, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993).

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1993).

P. Günter, and J. P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2 and 3, (Springer, Berlin, 2007), Springer Series in Optical Sciences Vols. 114 and 115.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental layout showing the NLC cell, the interfering beams (a and b), the photoaligning (c) and the probe (d) linearly polarized beams (black dotted arrows indicate the polarization direction). The NLC cell is made of two ITO substrates: the right one is the photoelectrically activable substrate, coated with a PVA film (yellow) and uniaxially rubbed to induce planar alignment along the y-axis; the left one is the photoaligning layer (orange), coated with the azo-dye-doped PVA. ψ indicates the twist angle, measured from the negative y-axis. VDC is the polarizing dc voltage applied to the ITO electrodes. The red and blue spheres represent the anions and cations accumulated at the anodic and cathodic interface, respectively. Ex and Ez are the transverse and longitudinal space-charge electric field components in the NLC layer, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized I_(δ) curves obtained from TBC measurements on the TN cell, for p-polarized beam and different values of the twist angle ψ. In the inset, the I +(δ) curve (red dots) for ψ=90° is reported.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized I_(δ) curves obtained from TBC measurements on the ψ=90° TN cell, for p-polarized and s-polarized interfering beams. The modulation amplitude, shown by the red bar, is equal to 4πΔnd/λ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Effective refractive index modulation parameters (amplitude Δn and phase φp ) and PR gain coefficient Γ for different values of the twist angle ψ

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