Abstract

We report physical processes responsible for the periodic nanostructure formation in femtosecond-laser ablation of thin film surfaces. It has been found that an initial random distribution of nanoscale ablation traces is periodically structured with an increase in superimposed laser pulses or fluence on diamond-like carbon film used as the target. The results show that the formation of periodicity can be attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons to induce the periodic enhancement of local fields in the surface layer. The estimated field period is in good agreement with the observed size of nanostructures.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Korte, S. Adams, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, M. Will, J. -P. Ruske, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, "Sub-diffraction limited structuring of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 7, 41-49 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352-357 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 79, 425-427 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Dong and P. Molian, "Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C-SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10-12 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Rudolf and W. Kautek, "Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation," Thin Solid Films 453-454, 537-541 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, "Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement," Thin Solid Films 467, 334-341 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Fluence dependence of femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on TiN and CrN," Appl. Phys. A 81, 933-937 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Bonse, M. Munz and H. Sturm, "Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, "Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 6651-6656 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191902 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p.5.
  24. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999), Sec.1.3.
  25. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-Resolved Reflectivity Measurements of Femtosecond-Optical-Pulse-Induced Phase Transitions in Silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. W. Williams and E. T. Arakawa, "Optical properties of glassy carbon from 0 to 82 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3460-3463 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. A. Alterovitz, N. Savvides, F. W. Smith, and J. A. Woollam, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh (Academic, London, 1997), p.837-852.

2007 (1)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Fluence dependence of femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on TiN and CrN," Appl. Phys. A 81, 933-937 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz and H. Sturm, "Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Le Harzic, H. Schuck, D. Sauer, T. Anhut, I. Riemann, and K. König, "Sub-100 nm nanostructuring of silicon by ultrashort laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 6651-6656 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 79, 425-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, "Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C-SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Rudolf and W. Kautek, "Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation," Thin Solid Films 453-454, 537-541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, "Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement," Thin Solid Films 467, 334-341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

F. Korte, S. Adams, A. Egbert, C. Fallnich, A. Ostendorf, S. Nolte, M. Will, J. -P. Ruske, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, "Sub-diffraction limited structuring of solid targets with femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 7, 41-49 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-Resolved Reflectivity Measurements of Femtosecond-Optical-Pulse-Induced Phase Transitions in Silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. W. Williams and E. T. Arakawa, "Optical properties of glassy carbon from 0 to 82 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3460-3463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adams, S.

Anhut, T.

Arakawa, E. T.

M. W. Williams and E. T. Arakawa, "Optical properties of glassy carbon from 0 to 82 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3460-3463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, M. Munz and H. Sturm, "Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Chua, S. J.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Daminelli, G.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, "Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement," Thin Solid Films 467, 334-341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, "Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C-SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

Fallnich, C.

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guosheng, Z.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-Resolved Reflectivity Measurements of Femtosecond-Optical-Pulse-Induced Phase Transitions in Silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, "Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement," Thin Solid Films 467, 334-341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Rudolf and W. Kautek, "Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation," Thin Solid Films 453-454, 537-541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiuchi, J.

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Fluence dependence of femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on TiN and CrN," Appl. Phys. A 81, 933-937 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 79, 425-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, W.

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

König, K.

Korte, F.

Krüger, J.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, "Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement," Thin Solid Films 467, 334-341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Harzic, R.

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, G. C.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maekawa, N.

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Fluence dependence of femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on TiN and CrN," Appl. Phys. A 81, 933-937 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 79, 425-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Molian, P.

Y. Dong and P. Molian, "Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C-SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz and H. Sturm, "Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, F. L.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Ostendorf, A.

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riemann, I.

Rudolf, P.

P. Rudolf and W. Kautek, "Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation," Thin Solid Films 453-454, 537-541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J. -P.

Sauer, D.

Schmidt, D.

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, H.

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-Resolved Reflectivity Measurements of Femtosecond-Optical-Pulse-Induced Phase Transitions in Silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz and H. Sturm, "Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

van Driel, H.M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. C.

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

Williams, M. W.

M. W. Williams and E. T. Arakawa, "Optical properties of glassy carbon from 0 to 82 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3460-3463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yasumaru, N.

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Fluence dependence of femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on TiN and CrN," Appl. Phys. A 81, 933-937 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 79, 425-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yen, R.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-Resolved Reflectivity Measurements of Femtosecond-Optical-Pulse-Induced Phase Transitions in Silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. L.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (5)

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A 79, 425-427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, "Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air," Appl. Phys. A 71, 657-665 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Fluence dependence of femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on TiN and CrN," Appl. Phys. A 81, 933-937 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki, N. Maekawa, W. Kobayashi, N. Yasumaru, and J. Kiuchi, "Reflectivity in femtosecond-laser-induced structural changes of diamond-like carbon film," Appl. Phys. A 80, 17-21 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191902 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, "Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dong and P. Molian, "Coulomb explosion-induced formation of highly oriented nanoparticles on thin films of 3C-SiC by the femtosecond pulsed laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 10-12 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (3)

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Surface patterning on insulators upon femtosecond laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, "Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 352-357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Wang, G. C. Lim, F. L. Ng, W. Liu, and S. J. Chua, "Femtosecond pulsed laser-induced periodic surface structures on GaN/sapphire," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 1492-1497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Bonse, M. Munz and H. Sturm, "Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Williams and E. T. Arakawa, "Optical properties of glassy carbon from 0 to 82 eV," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3460-3463 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Distinct Fine and Coarse Ripples on 4H-SiC Single Crystal Induced by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L444-L446 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guosheng, P. M. Fauchet, and A. E. Siegman, "Growth of spontaneous periodic surface structures on solids during laser illumination," Phys. Rev. B 26, 5366-5381 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H.M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structures. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, and C. Hirlimann, "Time-Resolved Reflectivity Measurements of Femtosecond-Optical-Pulse-Induced Phase Transitions in Silicon," Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454-457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

P. Rudolf and W. Kautek, "Composition influence of non-oxidic ceramics on self-assembled nanostructures due to fs-laser irradiation," Thin Solid Films 453-454, 537-541 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, "Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement," Thin Solid Films 467, 334-341 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. A. Alterovitz, N. Savvides, F. W. Smith, and J. A. Woollam, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh (Academic, London, 1997), p.837-852.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), p.5.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999), Sec.1.3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of DLC surfaces irradiated with the linearly polarized laser pulses of (a) N=10, (b) N=30, (c) N=100, (d) N=200, (e) N=500, and (f) N=1000 at a fixed fluence of F=100 mJ/cm2, where the laser polarization is horizontal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of DLC surfaces irradiated with the linearly (upper three) and circularly (lower three) polarized laser pulses of N=100 at F=80 mJ/cm2 for (a) and (d), F=100 mJ/cm2 for (b) and (e), and F=150 mJ/cm2 for (c) and (f). The laser polarization for (a)–(c) is horizontal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of the SPM image and its lateral (x-z) scan for (a) the flat surface irradiated at the fluence F 1=100 mJ/cm2 and for (b) the patterned surface at F 2=70 mJ/cm2, where linearly polarized laser pulses of N=100 are used for both, and the arrows denote the polarization (x) direction, and (c) schematic diagram of the patterned DLC surface including the local field E local in the direction at the angle θ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plasmon wavelength calculated as a function of electron density for the GC/DLC interface (lower curve) and for the air/GC (upper curve).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E = ( ε 1 ε 0 1 ) E 0 cos 2 θ ,
ε 1 = ε 0 [ ε G C ( ω p 2 ω 2 ) ] ,

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