Abstract

Single mode, low loss waveguides were fabricated in high index bismuth borate glass by femtosecond laser direct writing. A specific set of writing parameters leading to waveguides perfectly mode matched to standard single-mode fibers at 1.55 µm with an overall insertion loss of ~1 dB and with propagation loss below 0.2 dB/cm was identified. Photonic components such as Y-splitters and directional couplers were also demonstrated. A close agreement between their performances and theoretical predictions based upon the characterization of the waveguide properties is shown. Finally, the nonlinear refractive index of the waveguides has been measured to be 6.6×10-15 cm2/W by analyzing self-phase modulation of the propagating femtosecond laser pulse at the wavelength of 1.46 µm. Broadening of the transmitted light source as large as 500 nm was demonstrated through a waveguide with the length of 1.8 cm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10117-10124 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nature Photonics 2, 99-104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
  10. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, "Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG : Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Lett. 30, 2248-2250 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Y. Li, K. A. Winick, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, "Waveguide electro-optic modulator in fused silica fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and thermal poling," Opt. Lett. 31, 739-741 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A 88, 239-242 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. X. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 15776-15781 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Falcão Filho, CidB. de Araújo Diego Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, K. S. Francesco, P. Mezzapesa, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express 14, 10452-10459 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, "Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses," Opt. Express 13, 5676-5681 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. G. Tittelbach, B. Richter and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-706 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246-253 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)
  27. F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.
  28. C. J. Marckmann, Y. Ren, G. Genty, and M. Kristensen, "Strength and symmetry of the third-order nonlinearity during poling of glass waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1294-1296 (2001)

2008 (1)

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nature Photonics 2, 99-104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. X. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 15776-15781 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Falcão Filho, CidB. de Araújo Diego Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, K. S. Francesco, P. Mezzapesa, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (6)

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Spence, and M. J. Withford, "Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses," Opt. Express 13, 5676-5681 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, "Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG : Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Lett. 30, 2248-2250 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

2003 (5)

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 246-253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Arai, A. Y.

Armengol, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Bado, P.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

Bovatsek, J.

Bricchi, E.

Brodeur, A.

Brown, G.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, K.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

Carvalho, I. C. S.

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, G.

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Chen, W.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Cid, E. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Falcão Filho, CidB. de Araújo Diego Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, K. S. Francesco, P. Mezzapesa, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deparis, O.

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diez-Blanco, V.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Eaton, S. M.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falcão Filho, E. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Falcão Filho, CidB. de Araújo Diego Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, K. S. Francesco, P. Mezzapesa, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Florea, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, J. F.

Garcia-Navarro, A.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

C. J. Marckmann, Y. Ren, G. Genty, and M. Kristensen, "Strength and symmetry of the third-order nonlinearity during poling of glass waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1294-1296 (2001)

Glezer, E. N.

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Falcão Filho, CidB. de Araújo Diego Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, K. S. Francesco, P. Mezzapesa, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Groisman, A.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

Hartl, I.

Her, T. H.

Herman, P. R.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, K.

Iyer, R.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

Kar, A. K.

Karthe, W.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nature Photonics 2, 99-104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10117-10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Khrushchev, I.

Kim, T. N.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

Kleinfeld, D.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

Kluge, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Kristensen, M.

C. J. Marckmann, Y. Ren, G. Genty, and M. Kristensen, "Strength and symmetry of the third-order nonlinearity during poling of glass waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1294-1296 (2001)

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. Y.

Marangoni, M.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marckmann, C. J.

C. J. Marckmann, Y. Ren, G. Genty, and M. Kristensen, "Strength and symmetry of the third-order nonlinearity during poling of glass waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1294-1296 (2001)

Marshall, G. D.

Mazur, E.

Mezzapesa, F. P.

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Milosavljevic, M.

Minoshima, K.

Mitchell, J.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Osellame, R.

Polli, D.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N. D.

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

C. J. Marckmann, Y. Ren, G. Genty, and M. Kristensen, "Strength and symmetry of the third-order nonlinearity during poling of glass waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1294-1296 (2001)

Richter, B.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sakaguchi, K.

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, O.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

Shen, S. X.

Shestakov, A. V.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. J.

Sugimoto, N.

Svirko, Y. P.

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nature Photonics 2, 99-104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vega, F.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Wilkinson, J. S.

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

Withford, M. J.

Yamada, K.

Yang, W. J.

Zhang, H.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, J.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three- dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Femtosecond laser writing of optical waveguides with controllable core size in high refractive index glass," Appl. Phys. A 88, 239-242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).

K. Miura, J. R. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. J. Marckmann, Y. Ren, G. Genty, and M. Kristensen, "Strength and symmetry of the third-order nonlinearity during poling of glass waveguides," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1294-1296 (2001)

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. S. L. Gomes, E. L. Falcão Filho, CidB. de Araújo Diego Rativa, R. E. de Araujo, K. S. Francesco, P. Mezzapesa, Isabel C. S. Carvalho, and Peter G. Kazansky, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth-borate glasses measured by conventional and thermally managed eclipse Z scan," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. (1)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opti. Soc. Am. B. 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, "Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing," Nature Photonics 2, 99-104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Asano, K. Yamada, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, "Wavelength division with three-dimensional couplers fabricated by filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 2491-2493 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, "Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG : Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Lett. 30, 2248-2250 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Y. Li, K. A. Winick, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, "Waveguide electro-optic modulator in fused silica fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and thermal poling," Opt. Lett. 31, 739-741 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter and W. Karthe, "Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 683-706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solids (1)

O. Deparis, F. P. Mezzapesa, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Sakaguchi, "Origin and enhancement of the second-order non-linear optical susceptibility induced in bismuth borate glasses by thermal poling," J. Non-Crystal.Solids 351, 2166-2177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001)

F. P. Mezzapesa, I. C. S. Carvalho, C. Corbari, P. G. Kazansky, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. Chen, "Voltage-assisted cooling: a new route to enhance χ(2) during thermal poling," CLEO/QUELS Baltimore 22-27 May 2005 CMW7.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a): Schematic of the writing process. (b): Microscope image of the waveguides in the yz plane. (c): Aspect ratio versus focal depth using various slit widths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near-field mode profiles of the waveguides at 1.55 µm and (insert) microscope images of the waveguide cross-section. (a): Ep=200 nJ, w=400 µm. (b): Ep=280 nJ, w=500 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a): Refractive index change of the waveguides fabricated using 400 µm and 500 µm slits versus pulse energy. (b): Normalized frequency of the waveguides versus pulse energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fabry — Perot loss measurement of the waveguide (Ep=200 nJ, w=500 µm) at 1550 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a): Schematic of the Y - splitter (Ep=200 nJ, w=300 µm) (b): Differential interference contrast image of splitting part of the Y - splitter. (c): Near-field mode profile of the output facet of the Y-splitter from launching 1.55 µm light.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a): Schematic of directional coupler (Ep=200 nJ, w=300 µm). Near-field mode profiles of the output facets of the directional couplers when the centre-centre distance d equals (b): 30 µm. (c): 20 µm. (d): 15 µm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Coupling ratio γ against center-center distance d.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Normalized spectrum of the input pulse (black) and spectrum of the pulse (red) collected after propagation through the waveguide (Ep=240 nJ, w=500 µm).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Quadratic dependence of the SHG power against the fundamental pump power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Total insertion loss and propagation loss for different waveguides. The length of the waveguides is 1.78 cm. The propagation loss is obtained from either (a) insertion loss measurements or (b) Fabry-Perot method.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α [ d B cm ] = 4.343 L ln ( R × 1 + k 1 k )

Metrics