Abstract

We report on the fabrication of active optical channel waveguides in Er3+/MgO co-doped near stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals by means of selective low-dose oxygen ion implantation through a specially designed photoresist stripe mask. After post-implantation treatment at 260°C for 1 h, the channel waveguides possess a propagation loss of ~1.7 dB/cm. The micro-luminescence investigation reveals that fluorescence emissions at ~1.5 µm in the waveguides are well preserved with respect to the bulk, exhibiting possible applications for integrated active photonic devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, L. Wang, X. L. Wang and K. M. Wang, "Active waveguide in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3 crystal produced by low-dose carbon ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, "Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, M. Stepic, V. Shandarov, and D. Kip, "Reconfigurable optical channel waveguides in lithium niobate crystals produced by combination of low-dose O3+ ion implantation and selective white light illumination," Opt. Express 16, 10465-10470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. Flores-Romero, G. V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, "Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8513-8520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, F. Cussó, G. Lifante, A. C. Busacca, A. Cino, and S. R. Sanseverino, "Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on reverse proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 8805-8811 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, "Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguide writing in lithium niobate," Opt. Express 15, 10842-10854 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, "Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences," Opt. Lett. 32, 2587-2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.-F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, Q. M. Lu and H. J. Ma, "Oxygen ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3: Fabrication, characterization and simulation," J. Phys. D 40, 5824-5827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, "Emission characteristics of near-stoichiometric Er/Yb-codoped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Degl'Innocenti, A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, "Second harmonic generation of continuous wave ultraviolet light and production of ?-BaB2O4 optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, L. Laversenne, P. Moretti, C. N. Borca, and M. Pollnau, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of Ti:sapphire buried channel-waveguide lasers fabricated via proton implantation," Opt. Lett. 31, 3450-3452 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. L. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, "Near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 optical waveguides fabricated using vapor transport equilibration and Ti co-diffusion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3002-3004 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Arizmendi, "Photonic application of lithium niobate crystal," Phys. Stat. Solidi. 2, 253-283 (2004).

2003

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Fe:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. J. Kenyon, "Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225-284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Yang, H.-Y. Lee, and D.-H. Yoon, "Segregation and laser properties of Er/Mg co-doped LiNbO3 single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 244, 49-52 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Zhang, G. Ding and C. Chen, "Parameters Optimization of Ti-diffused Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguide Lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1623 (2000).

1999

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, "Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 35, 499-501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Kip, "Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications," Appl. Phys. B 67, 131-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Polman, "Erbium-implanted thin film photonic materials," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1-39 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength and composition: A generalized fit," Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613-15620 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

1990

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

P.J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

R. Regener, and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agranat, A. J.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, "Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

Ancona, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, "Photonic application of lithium niobate crystal," Phys. Stat. Solidi. 2, 253-283 (2004).

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bazzan, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentini, G. G.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength and composition: A generalized fit," Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613-15620 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bianconi, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borca, C. N.

Bosso, S.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Busacca, A.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Busacca, A. C.

Caballero, O.

Cantelar, E.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, F. Cussó, G. Lifante, A. C. Busacca, A. Cino, and S. R. Sanseverino, "Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on reverse proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 8805-8811 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

Chandler, P. J.

Chandler, P.J.

P.J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

D. Zhang, G. Ding and C. Chen, "Parameters Optimization of Ti-diffused Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguide Lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1623 (2000).

Chen, F.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, L. Wang, X. L. Wang and K. M. Wang, "Active waveguide in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3 crystal produced by low-dose carbon ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tan, F. Chen, M. Stepic, V. Shandarov, and D. Kip, "Reconfigurable optical channel waveguides in lithium niobate crystals produced by combination of low-dose O3+ ion implantation and selective white light illumination," Opt. Express 16, 10465-10470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, Q. M. Lu and H. J. Ma, "Oxygen ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3: Fabrication, characterization and simulation," J. Phys. D 40, 5824-5827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiarini, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cino, A.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, F. Cussó, G. Lifante, A. C. Busacca, A. Cino, and S. R. Sanseverino, "Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on reverse proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 8805-8811 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Correra, L.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Couchaud, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.-F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cusso, F.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cussó, F.

Das, B. K.

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Fe:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Micheli, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ding, G.

D. Zhang, G. Ding and C. Chen, "Parameters Optimization of Ti-diffused Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 Channel Waveguide Lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 1623 (2000).

Domenech, M.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

Ferrand, B.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.-F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, S. J.

Flores-Romero, E.

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, "Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 35, 499-501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, "Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 35, 499-501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

García-Cabañes, A.

García-Navarro, A.

Greiner, A.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grezes-Besset, C.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

Gumennik, A.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, "Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guzzi, R.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Habu, M.

S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

He, Q.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Ikushima, A. J.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, "Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 35, 499-501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ilan, H.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, "Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Israel, A.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, "Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, L. Wang, X. L. Wang and K. M. Wang, "Active waveguide in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3 crystal produced by low-dose carbon ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, F. Cussó, G. Lifante, A. C. Busacca, A. Cino, and S. R. Sanseverino, "Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on reverse proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 8805-8811 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joubert, M.-F.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.-F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
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A. J. Kenyon, "Recent developments in rare-earth doped materials for optoelectronics," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 225-284 (2002).
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S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

Kitamura, K.

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, "Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 35, 499-501 (1999).
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E. Lallier, "Rare-earth-doped glass and LiNbO3 waveguide lasers and optical amplifiers," Appl. Opt. 31, 5276-5282 (1992).
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E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
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P.J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Optica Acta 33, 127-142 (1986).
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Laversenne, L.

Lee, H.-Y.

W.-S. Yang, H.-Y. Lee, and D.-H. Yoon, "Segregation and laser properties of Er/Mg co-doped LiNbO3 single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 244, 49-52 (2002).
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Lee, M.

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Rodríguez, D. Jaque, E. Cantelar, F. Cussó, G. Lifante, A. C. Busacca, A. Cino, and S. R. Sanseverino, "Time resolved confocal luminescence investigations on reverse proton exchange Nd:LiNbO3 channel waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 8805-8811 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K.

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Q. M.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, Q. M. Lu and H. J. Ma, "Oxygen ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3: Fabrication, characterization and simulation," J. Phys. D 40, 5824-5827 (2007).
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Ma, H. J.

F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, Q. M. Lu and H. J. Ma, "Oxygen ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3: Fabrication, characterization and simulation," J. Phys. D 40, 5824-5827 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

Mazzoldi, P.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

Moretti, P.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.-F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, L. Laversenne, P. Moretti, C. N. Borca, and M. Pollnau, "Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of Ti:sapphire buried channel-waveguide lasers fabricated via proton implantation," Opt. Lett. 31, 3450-3452 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munoz, J. A.

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Natori, M.

S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nevado, R.

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohama, M.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, "Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3," Electron. Lett. 35, 499-501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pelletier, E.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Perepelitsa, G.

H. Ilan, A. Gumennik, G. Perepelitsa, A. Israel, and A. J. Agranat, "Construction of an optical wire imprinted in potassium lithium tantalate niobate by He+ implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 191101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pocholle, J. P.

E. Lallier, J. P. Pocholle, M. Papuchon, M. de Micheli, M. J. Li, Q. He, D. B. Ostrowsky, C. Grezes-Besset, E. Pelletier, "Efficient Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 927-928, (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Polman, A.

A. Polman, "Erbium-implanted thin film photonic materials," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1-39 (1997).
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Pun, E. Y. B.

D. L. Zhang and E. Y. B. Pun, "Emission characteristics of near-stoichiometric Er/Yb-codoped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 023101 (2006).
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D. L. Zhang, W. H. Wong, and E. Y. B. Pun, "Near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 optical waveguides fabricated using vapor transport equilibration and Ti co-diffusion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3002-3004 (2004).
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Rangel-Rojo, R.

Regener, R.

R. Regener, and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rickards, J.

Ricken, R.

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Fe:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riva Sanseverino, S.

E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, F. Cusso, M. Domenech, A. Busacca, A. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, "Dual-polarization-pump CW laser operation in Nd3+:LiNbO3 channel waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange," Opt. Mater. 30, 1039-1043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, E. M.

Sada, C.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanseverino, S. R.

Sanz-Garcia, J. A.

G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, J. A. Munoz, R. Nevado, J. A. Sanz-Garcia, F. Cusso, "Zn-diffused LiNbO3:Er3+/Yb3+ as a waveguide laser material," Opt. Mater. 13, 181-186 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, K.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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U. Schlarb and K. Betzler, "Refractive indices of lithium niobate as a function of temperature, wavelength and composition: A generalized fit," Phys. Rev. B 48, 15613-15620 (1993).
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Shandarov, V.

Shepherd, D. P.

Shin, T.I.

S. M. Lee, T.I. Shin, Y.T. Kim, M. Habu, T. Ito, M. Natori, and D.H. Yoon, "Effect of optical properties of Er2O3 doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 single crystals and co-doped with MgO," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 105, 34-36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Söchtig, J.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

B. K. Das, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Fe:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener, and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Somu, K.

J. Kang, M. Lee, S. Lee, K. Lim, K. Somu, S. Takekawa, and K. Kitamura, "1.5 µm emission characteristics of Er3+-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4367-4369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Suche, H.

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F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, L. Wang, X. L. Wang and K. M. Wang, "Active waveguide in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3 crystal produced by low-dose carbon ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021110 (2008).
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F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, L. Wang, X. L. Wang and K. M. Wang, "Active waveguide in Nd3+:MgO:LiNbO3 crystal produced by low-dose carbon ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021110 (2008).
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I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, "Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355-366 (1996).
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F. Chen, Y. Tan, L. Wang, Q. M. Lu and H. J. Ma, "Oxygen ion implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3: Fabrication, characterization and simulation," J. Phys. D 40, 5824-5827 (2007).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic plot of the waveguide fabrication process. The inset shows the microscope image of the transverse cross section of the channel waveguide. The dashed lines denote the location of the channel waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Profile of extraordinary refractive index changes Δn e induced by the ion implantation as function of the penetration depth of the incident ions inside the crystal (pointing z axis).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). The 2D n e distribution of the channel waveguide at the cross section, (b). 3D plot of the calculated modal profile of the quasi-TM00 mode by FD-BPM and (c). measured near-field intensity distribution of quasi-TM00 mode at wavelength of 632.8nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). The 2D n e distribution of the channel waveguide at the cross section and (b) 3D plot of the calculated modal profile of the quasi-TM00 mode by FD-BPM at wavelength of 1.5µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Confocal room-temperature luminescence emission spectra from (a) the bulk and (b) the channel waveguide volume, corresponding to the 4 I 13/2 4 I 15/2 transitions

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