Abstract

We describe fluorescence imaging using the second-order correlation of entangled photon pairs. The proposed method is based on the principle that one photon of the pair carries information on where the other photon has been absorbed and has produced fluorescence in a sample. Because fluorescent molecules serve as “detectors” breaking the entanglement, multiply-scattered fluorescence photons within the sample do not cause image blur. We discuss experimental implementations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, "Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 361, 1655-1674 (2003);
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1, 165-171 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, "Two-Photon Optics - Diffraction, Holography and Transformation of 2-Dimensional Signals," JETP 105, 487-493 (1994).
  5. R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ""Two-photon" coincidence imaging with a classical source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. J. Glauber, "Quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1174-1184 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Bellis, R. Wilcock, and C. Jackson, "Photon counting imaging: the digital APD," Proc. SPIE 6068, 6068D (2006).
  12. G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2760-2762 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1, 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Bellis, R. Wilcock, and C. Jackson, "Photon counting imaging: the digital APD," Proc. SPIE 6068, 6068D (2006).

2005 (2)

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2760-2762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, "Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 361, 1655-1674 (2003);
[CrossRef]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ""Two-photon" coincidence imaging with a classical source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1174-1184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, "Two-Photon Optics - Diffraction, Holography and Transformation of 2-Dimensional Signals," JETP 105, 487-493 (1994).

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

R. J. Glauber, "Quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1174-1184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bache, M.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
[CrossRef]

Belinskii, A. V.

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, "Two-Photon Optics - Diffraction, Holography and Transformation of 2-Dimensional Signals," JETP 105, 487-493 (1994).

Bellis, S.

S. Bellis, R. Wilcock, and C. Jackson, "Photon counting imaging: the digital APD," Proc. SPIE 6068, 6068D (2006).

Bennink, R. S.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ""Two-photon" coincidence imaging with a classical source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bentley, S. J.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ""Two-photon" coincidence imaging with a classical source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Boyd, R. W.

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ""Two-photon" coincidence imaging with a classical source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
[CrossRef]

D'Angelo, M.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, "Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 361, 1655-1674 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1, 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, "Quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gompers, S.

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, C.

S. Bellis, R. Wilcock, and C. Jackson, "Photon counting imaging: the digital APD," Proc. SPIE 6068, 6068D (2006).

Klyshko, D. N.

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, "Two-Photon Optics - Diffraction, Holography and Transformation of 2-Dimensional Signals," JETP 105, 487-493 (1994).

Lugiato, L. A.

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, "Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 361, 1655-1674 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

Pittman, T. B.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, B. E. A.

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1174-1184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scarcelli, G.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1174-1184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, Y.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, P. R.

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D. V.

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Teich, M. C.

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, B. E. A. Saleh, A. V. Sergienko, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon Fourier optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1174-1184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R.

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1, 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vakoc, B. J.

Valencia, A.

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilcock, R.

S. Bellis, R. Wilcock, and C. Jackson, "Photon counting imaging: the digital APD," Proc. SPIE 6068, 6068D (2006).

Yelin, D.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Scarcelli, A. Valencia, S. Gompers, and Y. Shih, "Remote spectral measurement using entangled photons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5560-5562 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP (1)

A. V. Belinskii and D. N. Klyshko, "Two-Photon Optics - Diffraction, Holography and Transformation of 2-Dimensional Signals," JETP 105, 487-493 (1994).

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. Gisin and R. Thew, "Quantum communication," Nat. Photonics 1, 165-171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A (1)

J. P. Dowling and G. J. Milburn, "Quantum technology: the second quantum revolution," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 361, 1655-1674 (2003);
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. J. Glauber, "Quantum theory of optical coherence," Phys. Rev. 130, 2529 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

A. Gatti, E. Brambilla, M. Bache, and L. A. Lugiato, "Correlated imaging, quantum and classical," Phys. Rev. A 70, 013802 (2004).Q4
[CrossRef]

T. B. Pittman, Y. H. Shih, D. V. Strekalov, and A. V. Sergienko, "Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429-R3432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. S. Bennink, S. J. Bentley, and R. W. Boyd, ""Two-photon" coincidence imaging with a classical source," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Valencia, G. Scarcelli, M. D'Angelo, and Y. Shih, "Two-photon imaging with thermal light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 063601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Abouraddy, P. R. Stone, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, "Entangled-photon imaging of a pure phase object," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 213903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Bellis, R. Wilcock, and C. Jackson, "Photon counting imaging: the digital APD," Proc. SPIE 6068, 6068D (2006).

Science (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, "Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy," Science 248, 73-76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of entangled-photon fluorescence imaging. (a) Imaging system schematic. (b) The intrinsic correlation function of entangled photon pair measured with ideal fast detectors. (c) The correlation function broadened by fluorescence molecules and detectors. τ F and τ d are time delays due to the fluorescence lifetime and the photon propagation from the molecule to the detector. The integration time T is chosen to be longer than these time constants.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Unfolded geometrical beam paths. The brown and green shaded regions depict all the possible optical paths of the probe and reference photons. Solid line traces (black) represent correlation beam paths between r 1 and r 2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrally-encoded coincidence imaging. Orthogonally polarized entangled photons are separated into a fiber-optic probe and reference arms. The probe photon is spectrally dispersed and focused to a sample. Fluorescence photon (red) is collected by a large-area bucket detector, D1, and the position of the excited fluorescence molecule is determined by measuring the frequency (wavelength) of reference photon.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The effect of multiple scattering in a sample.

Equations (5)

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I ( 2 ) ( r 1 ; r 2 ) = T d τ 1 d τ 2 G F ( 2 ) ( r 1 , τ 1 ; r 2 , τ 2 ) T ,
G F ( 2 ) = dt 1 dt 2 dt F G ( 2 ) ( r 1 , t 1 ; r 2 , t 2 ) F ( r 1 , t F t 1 ) γ 1 ( τ 1 t F ) γ 2 ( τ 2 t 2 ) .
R c ( r 2 ) = V d r 1 I ( 2 ) ( r 1 ; r 2 )
1 s 1 + 1 a + ( λ 2 λ 1 ) b = 1 f obj ,
I ( 2 ) ( r 1 ; r 2 ) f ( r 1 ) d r c h 1 ( r 1 ; r c ) h 2 ( r 2 ; r c ) 2 ,

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