Abstract

We present a novel transceiver setup for Polarization Shift Keying (PolSK) modulation using a simple transmitter and a receiver based on differential demodulation. The transmitter is made up of a LiNbO 3 phase modulator with the input fiber pigtailed at 45° with respect to the principal axes of the modulator. The receiver is composed of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (AMZI) and a couple of balanced photodetectors (BPD), as usually employed for receiving DPSK. To our knowledge, it is the first time such receiver structure is applied to PolSK. In order to fully assess the system performance of the proposed setup, we have carried out numerical simulations using a semi-analytical technique for bit-error-rate evaluation and performed experimental measurements at 10 Gbit/s. After having optimized transceiver performances, we evaluated the resilience to receiver impairments to verify the viability of a realistic implementation. Surprisingly, PolSK shows a better sensitivity using a single-end receiver (with the AMZI tuned at the minimum transmittance point) than using a balanced one. Another improvement has been obtained optimizing the driving voltage at the transmitter: this leads to a “non-ideal” PolSK modulation with non-orthogonal symbols, which shows an enhanced performance thanks to a synchronous phase modulation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. T. Schaafsma, E. Miles, and E. M. Bradley, "Comparison of conventional and gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 922-925 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Betti, G. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, "Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1985-1997 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 531-542 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Benedetto, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, C. Barry, A. Djupsjobacka, and B. Lagerstrom, "Coherent and direct-detection polarization modulation system experiments," Proc. of ECOC 1994, paper Mo.B.3.3.
  5. P. Baroni, G. Bosco, A. Carena, and P. Poggiolini, "A novel POLSK transceiver based on differential demodulation: assesment of performance," Proc. of OFC 2006, paper JThB43.
  6. A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The Impact of Receiver Imperfections on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 842-848 (2004).
  8. E. Hu, Y. Hsueh, K. Wong, M. Marhic, L. Kazovsky, K. Shimizu, and N. Kikuchi, "4-level direct-detection of polarization shift keying (DD-PolSK) system with phase modulators," Proc. of OFC 2003, paper FD-2.
  9. F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Benedetto, R Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1269-1279 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Davidson, L. Liu, A. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, P. Corbett, H. Zhang, Y Cai, M. Nissov, A. Pilipetskii, and N. Bergano, "Polarization tracking receiver demonstration over transoceanic distance," Proc. of OFC 2003, paper TuF-3.
  12. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication, (Mc.Graw-Hill, New York, 1989).
  13. G. Bosco and R. Gaudino, "On BER estimation in optical system simulation: Monte-Carlo vs. semi-analytical techniques," Proc. of ECOC 2000, paper 3.3.
  14. J. Lee and C. S. Shim, "Bit error rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and post-detection filtering," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Joint Effect of Receiver Impairments on Direct-Detection DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1323-1333 (2005).
  17. http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products/system simulation/OptSim

2005 (2)

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Joint Effect of Receiver Impairments on Direct-Detection DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1323-1333 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The Impact of Receiver Imperfections on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 842-848 (2004).

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

S. Benedetto, R Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1269-1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 531-542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. Lee and C. S. Shim, "Bit error rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Betti, G. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, "Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1985-1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Benedetto, S.

S. Benedetto, R Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1269-1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 531-542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Betti, S.

S. Betti, G. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, "Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1985-1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bosco, G.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Joint Effect of Receiver Impairments on Direct-Detection DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1323-1333 (2005).

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The Impact of Receiver Imperfections on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 842-848 (2004).

Bradley, E. M.

De Marchis, G.

S. Betti, G. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, "Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1985-1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Forestieri, E.

Gaudino, R

S. Benedetto, R Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1269-1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 531-542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Gray, D. A.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, E.

S. Betti, G. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, "Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1985-1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee and C. S. Shim, "Bit error rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miles, E.

Poggiolini, P.

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Joint Effect of Receiver Impairments on Direct-Detection DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1323-1333 (2005).

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The Impact of Receiver Imperfections on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 842-848 (2004).

S. Benedetto, R Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1269-1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 531-542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schaafsma, D. T.

Shim, C. S.

J. Lee and C. S. Shim, "Bit error rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.W.

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 13, 531-542 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Heismann, D. A. Gray, B. H. Lee, and R.W. Smith, "Electrooptic polarization scramblers for optically amplified long-haul transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1156-1159 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Benedetto, R Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Polarization recovery in optical polarization shift keying systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1269-1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "The Impact of Receiver Imperfections on the Performance of Optical Direct-Detection DPSK," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 842-848 (2004).

J. Lee and C. S. Shim, "Bit error rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Betti, G. De Marchis, and E. Iannone, "Polarization modulated direct detection optical transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1985-1997 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Bosco and P. Poggiolini, "On the Joint Effect of Receiver Impairments on Direct-Detection DQPSK Systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1323-1333 (2005).

D. T. Schaafsma, E. Miles, and E. M. Bradley, "Comparison of conventional and gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifiers for wavelength-division-multiplexed transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 922-925 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and post-detection filtering," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products/system simulation/OptSim

S. Benedetto, R. Paoletti, P. Poggiolini, C. Barry, A. Djupsjobacka, and B. Lagerstrom, "Coherent and direct-detection polarization modulation system experiments," Proc. of ECOC 1994, paper Mo.B.3.3.

P. Baroni, G. Bosco, A. Carena, and P. Poggiolini, "A novel POLSK transceiver based on differential demodulation: assesment of performance," Proc. of OFC 2006, paper JThB43.

E. Hu, Y. Hsueh, K. Wong, M. Marhic, L. Kazovsky, K. Shimizu, and N. Kikuchi, "4-level direct-detection of polarization shift keying (DD-PolSK) system with phase modulators," Proc. of OFC 2003, paper FD-2.

C. Davidson, L. Liu, A. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, P. Corbett, H. Zhang, Y Cai, M. Nissov, A. Pilipetskii, and N. Bergano, "Polarization tracking receiver demonstration over transoceanic distance," Proc. of OFC 2003, paper TuF-3.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication, (Mc.Graw-Hill, New York, 1989).

G. Bosco and R. Gaudino, "On BER estimation in optical system simulation: Monte-Carlo vs. semi-analytical techniques," Proc. of ECOC 2000, paper 3.3.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmitter schematics: a phase modulator with the 45° input fiber pigtail.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Receiver schematics: optical filter, Asymmetric Maxh-Zehnder Interferometer (AMZI), Balanced Photodetector (BPD) and electric filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

System layout for BER measurements as a function of OSNR based on the noise loading technique. This setup has been used both to obtain simulative results and to carry out the experimental validation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

BER vs. OSNR in ideal conditions with a balanced receiver.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

OSNR penalty vs. the normalized BPD amplitude imbalance parameter β.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated eye diagrams for different BPD imbalance conditions: ideal balanced receiver (β=0), optimum imbalance (β=-0.5), single-ended and AMZI tuned at maximum transmittance (β=+1) and single-ended and AMZI tuned at minimum transmittance (β=-1). Normalized eye opening are also indicated. Each simulation has been carried at the OSNR corresponding to BER=10-6 for that condition.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

OSNR penalty vs. normalized modulator driving voltage: balanced and single-ended cases.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

OSNR penalty vs. normalized AMZI detuning (expressed as percentage of the bit rate).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

OSNR penalty vs. normalized AMZI delay error (expressed as percentage of the bit duration).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

OSNR penalty vs. AMZI extinction ratio (ε [dB]).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

BER vs. OSNR plot for the nominal PolSK (Vpp /VPolSK =1): single-ended, AMZI tuned at maximum and at minimum transmittance.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

OSNR required to achieve BER=10-6 vs. normalized modulator driving amplitude. Lines refer to simulations, circle and square to measurements with AMZI tuned at maximum and minimum transmittance respectively.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

OSNR penalty vs. AMZI frequency detuning at optimum condition (Vpp /VPolSK =0.75 and β=-1). Continuous lines is obtained through simulations, circles are taken from measurements.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Measured eye diagrams under the best driving condition: Vpp /VPolSK =0.75. Left: AMZI tuned at minimum transmittance and OSNR=16.5 dB corresponding to BER=10-6. Right: AMZI tuned at maximum transmittance and OSNR=20.7 dB corresponding to BER=10-6.

Equations (16)

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E TX ( t ) = E in 2 ( e j ϕ x ( t ) x ̂ e j ϕ y ( t ) y ̂ )
ϕ x ( t ) = V pp V π x π n a n p ( t n T ) and ϕ y ( t ) = V pp V π y π n a n p ( t n T )
V pp = V PolSK = V π x · k k 1 .
E 1 ( t ) = 1 2 [ E RX ( t ) + γ E RX ( t T AMZI ) e j δ ϕ ]
E 2 ( t ) = 1 2 [ E RX ( t ) γ E RX ( t T AMZI ) e j δ ϕ ] .
I ( t ) = I 1 ( t ) I 2 ( t ) = [ R 1 E 1 ( t τ 1 ) 2 R 2 E 2 ( t τ 2 ) 2 ]
E 1 = 1 2 [ E in 2 ( e j k k 1 π a n x ̂ e j 1 k 1 π a n y ̂ ) ] +
+ E in 2 ( e j k k 1 π a n 1 x ̂ e j 1 k 1 π a n 1 y ̂ ) ]
E 2 = 1 2 [ E in 2 ( e j k k 1 π a n x ̂ e j k k 1 π a n y ̂ ) +
E in 2 ( e j k k 1 π a n 1 x ̂ e j k k 1 π a n 1 y ̂ ) ] ,
if a n = a n 1 I 1 = R E in 2 ; I 2 = 0 ;
if a n a n 1 I 1 = R E in 2 2 ; I 2 = R E in 2 2
β = R 1 R 2 R 1 + R 2
Δ f B R = δ ϕ 4 π ,
δ T AMZI T = T AMZI T T .
ε = 10 · log 10 [ ( 1 + γ ) 2 ( 1 γ ) 2 ] .

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