Abstract

We report an optically-pumped semiconductor disk laser passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror. Both the absorber and the gain media were made of dilute nitride compound semiconductor, GaInNAs, which enables operation around 1.2 µm wavelengths. The laser generated 5 ps optical pulses with an average output power up to 275 mW. Our demonstration provides an attractive approach for efficiently generating red-wavelengths through external cavity frequency doubling.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, M. Guina, J. Konttinen, P. Tuomisto, L. Orsila, M. Pessa, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "High power frequency doubled GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser emitting at 615 nm," Opt. Express 15, 3224-3229 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, P. Tuomisto, J. Konttinen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "1 W at 617 nm generation by intracavity frequency conversion in semiconductor disk laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 980-981 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Rautianen, A. Härkönen, V. -M. Korpijärvi, P. Tuomisto, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "2.7 W tunable orange-red GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser," Opt. Express 15, 18345-18350, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30,272-274 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Goldberg and D. Mehuys, "Blue light generation using a high power tapered amplifier mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 522-524 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Saarinen, A. Härkönen, R. Herda, S. Suomalainen, L. Orsila, T. Hakulinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Harmonically mode-locked VECSELs for multi-GHz pulse train generation," Opt. Express 15, 955-964 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Saarinen, R. Herda, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Dynamics of pulse formation in mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2784-2790 (2007).

2007 (5)

2005 (2)

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30,272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Goldberg and D. Mehuys, "Blue light generation using a high power tapered amplifier mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 522-524 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abram, R.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

Burns, D.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg and D. Mehuys, "Blue light generation using a high power tapered amplifier mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 522-524 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Hastie, J. E.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herda, R.

Hoogland, S.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J. M.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jouhti, T.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Konttinen, J.

J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, P. Tuomisto, J. Konttinen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "1 W at 617 nm generation by intracavity frequency conversion in semiconductor disk laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 980-981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, M. Guina, J. Konttinen, P. Tuomisto, L. Orsila, M. Pessa, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "High power frequency doubled GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser emitting at 615 nm," Opt. Express 15, 3224-3229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korpijärvi, V. -M.

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lorenser, D.

Mehuys, D.

L. Goldberg and D. Mehuys, "Blue light generation using a high power tapered amplifier mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 522-524 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Orsila, L.

Paschotta, R.

Pessa, M.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, M. Guina, J. Konttinen, P. Tuomisto, L. Orsila, M. Pessa, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "High power frequency doubled GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser emitting at 615 nm," Opt. Express 15, 3224-3229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rautiainen, J.

J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, P. Tuomisto, J. Konttinen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "1 W at 617 nm generation by intracavity frequency conversion in semiconductor disk laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 980-981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, M. Guina, J. Konttinen, P. Tuomisto, L. Orsila, M. Pessa, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "High power frequency doubled GaInNAs semiconductor disk laser emitting at 615 nm," Opt. Express 15, 3224-3229 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rautianen, J.

Riis, E.

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. S.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, E.

Sagnes, I.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. A.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. D.

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suomalainen, S.

Tropper, A. C.

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tuomisto, P.

Unold, H. J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Goldberg and D. Mehuys, "Blue light generation using a high power tapered amplifier mode-locked laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 522-524 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, "Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651-653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. M. Hopkins, S. A. Smith, C. W. Jeon, H. D. Sun, D. Burns, S. Calvez, M. D. Dawson, T. Jouhti, and M. Pessa, "0.6 W CW GaInNAs vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser operating at 1.32 ?m," Electron. Lett. 40, 30-31 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Rautiainen, A. Härkönen, P. Tuomisto, J. Konttinen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, "1 W at 617 nm generation by intracavity frequency conversion in semiconductor disk laser," Electron. Lett. 43, 980-981 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (3)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hastie, J. M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, "0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 15, 894-896 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoogland, A. Garnache, I. Sagnes, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, "10-GHz train of sub-500-fs optical soliton-like pulses from a surface-emitting semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 17,267-269 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structures of (a) gain mirror and (b) SESAM. Refractive index profile and standing wave pattern plotted through structure depth normalized to the optical wavelength at 1220 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The measured reflectivity and photoluminescence characteristics of GaInNAs gain mirror.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cavity setup of the mode-locked disk laser. RoC - radius of curvature; D - distance between respective cavity elements.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Average output power as a function of pump power for mode-locked operation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Pulse autocorrelation near and (b) far above the laser threshold corresponding to the average output power of 25 and 213 mW, respectively. The measurements are fitted with sech2 function.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mode-locked optical spectra corresponding to the autocorrelations shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Typical microwave spectrum in the mode-locked regime.

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