Abstract

We present a micropatterning method for the automatic transfer and arbitrary positioning of computer-generated three-dimensional structures within a substrate. The Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and an electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) are used to create and display phase holograms, respectively. A holographic approach to light manipulation enables arbitrary and efficient parallel photo-patterning. Multiple pyramidal microstructures were created simultaneously in a photosensitive adhesive. A scanning electron microscope was used to confirm successful replication of the desired microscale structures.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
  4. C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, "Laser Direct-Write Processing," MRS Bulletin 32, 915 (2007).
  5. H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. T. Hill and J. B. Shear, "Enzyme-nanoparticle functionalization of three-dimensional protein scaffolds," Anal. Chem. 78, 7022-7026 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, H. Misawa, and S. Matsuo, "Holographic lithography of periodic two- and three-dimensional microstructures in photoresist SU-8," Opt. Express 14, 7943-7953 (2006).
  11. S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Holographic femtosecond laser processing with multiplexed phase Fresnel lenses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1705-1707 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Kuroiwa, N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, "Arbitrary micropatterning method in femtosecond laser microprocessing using diffractive optical elements," Opt. Express 12, 1908-1915 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. J. Jenness, K. D. Wulff, M. S. Johannes, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Dynamic Maskless Holographic Lithography," Proceedings of ASME IDETC/CIE 2007 Micro- and Nanosystems (2007).
  14. J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Leach, K. Wulff, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, L. Thomson, G. Gibson, K. Karunwi, J. Cooper, Z. J. Laczik, and M. Padgett, "Interactive approach to optical tweezers control," Appl. Opt. 45, 897-903 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R.W. Gerchberg andW. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-248 (1972).
  19. M. A. Seldowitz, J. P. Allebach, and D. W. Sweeney, "Synthesis of Digital Holograms by Direct Binary Search," Appl. Opt. 26, 2788-2798 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, "Laser Direct-Write Processing," MRS Bulletin 32, 915 (2007).

2006 (7)

R. T. Hill and J. B. Shear, "Enzyme-nanoparticle functionalization of three-dimensional protein scaffolds," Anal. Chem. 78, 7022-7026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kondo, S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, H. Misawa, and S. Matsuo, "Holographic lithography of periodic two- and three-dimensional microstructures in photoresist SU-8," Opt. Express 14, 7943-7953 (2006).

S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Holographic femtosecond laser processing with multiplexed phase Fresnel lenses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1705-1707 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Leach, K. Wulff, G. Sinclair, P. Jordan, J. Courtial, L. Thomson, G. Gibson, K. Karunwi, J. Cooper, Z. J. Laczik, and M. Padgett, "Interactive approach to optical tweezers control," Appl. Opt. 45, 897-903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuroiwa, N. Takeshima, Y. Narita, S. Tanaka, and K. Hirao, "Arbitrary micropatterning method in femtosecond laser microprocessing using diffractive optical elements," Opt. Express 12, 1908-1915 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

1987 (1)

1972 (1)

R.W. Gerchberg andW. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-248 (1972).

Allebach, J. P.

Allen, R.

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Arnold, C. B.

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, "Laser Direct-Write Processing," MRS Bulletin 32, 915 (2007).

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Braun, K. L.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T.

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, J. K.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, R. L.

M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cole, D. G.

M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

Courtial, J.

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Curtis, J. E.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drechsler, U.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Eason, R. W.

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Elbaum, M.

A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Ertas, N.

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R.W. Gerchberg andW. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-248 (1972).

Gibson, G.

Grier, D. G.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guntherodt, H. J.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haist, T.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, R.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, S.

Hayasaki, Y.

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Hill, R. T.

R. T. Hill and J. B. Shear, "Enzyme-nanoparticle functionalization of three-dimensional protein scaffolds," Anal. Chem. 78, 7022-7026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Itoga, K.

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, M. S.

M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, P.

Juodkazis, S.

Kaehr, B.

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karunwi, K.

Kawata, S.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E.

A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, J.

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

Koss, B. A.

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Kuniholm, J. F.

M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuroiwa, Y.

Lachish-Zalait, A.

A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laczik, Z. J.

Leach, J.

Lee, I. Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Liesener, J.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahrt, R. F.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Matsuo, S.

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Melvin, T.

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mizeikis, V.

Narita, Y.

Nielson, R.

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, N.

Ober, C. K.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, T.

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

Perry, J. W.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Pique, A.

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, "Laser Direct-Write Processing," MRS Bulletin 32, 915 (2007).

Plenert, M.

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J. Q.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Reicherter, M.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rockel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Salis, G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R.W. Gerchberg andW. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-248 (1972).

Seldowitz, M. A.

Shear, J. B.

R. T. Hill and J. B. Shear, "Enzyme-nanoparticle functionalization of three-dimensional protein scaffolds," Anal. Chem. 78, 7022-7026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, G.

Smith, C. G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takeshima, N.

Tanaka, S.

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teh, W. H.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, L.

Tiziani, H. J.

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Wulff, K.

Yamato, M.

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yin, H. B.

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. Y.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbaida, D.

A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. H.

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Lachish-Zalait, D. Zbaida, E. Klein, and M. Elbaum, "Direct surface patterning from solutions: Localized microchemistry using a focused laser," Adv. Funct. Mater. 11, 218223 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

R. T. Hill and J. B. Shear, "Enzyme-nanoparticle functionalization of three-dimensional protein scaffolds," Anal. Chem. 78, 7022-7026 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaehr, N. Ertas, R. Nielson, R. Allen, R. T. Hill, M. Plenert, and J. B. Shear, "Direct-write fabrication of functional protein matrixes using a low-cost Q-switched laser," Anal. Chem. 78, 3198-3202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, "SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4095-4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biomaterials (1)

K. Itoga, J. Kobayashi, M. Yamato, A. Kikuchi, and T. Okano, "Maskless liquid-crystal-display projection photolithography for improved design flexibility of cellular micropatterns," Biomaterials 27, 3005-3009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering (1)

M. S. Johannes, J. F. Kuniholm, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Automated CAD/CAM-based nanolithography using a custom atomic force microscope," IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering 3, 236-239 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bulletin (1)

C. B. Arnold and A. Pique, "Laser Direct-Write Processing," MRS Bulletin 32, 915 (2007).

Nature (2)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices - Micro machines can be created with higher resolution using two-photon absorption," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Q. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).

Nucleic Acids Res. (1)

H. B. Yin, T. Brown, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, and T. Melvin, "Submicron patterning of DNA oligonucleotides on silicon," Nucleic Acids Res. 32, e118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Liesener, M. Reicherter, T. Haist, and H. J. Tiziani, "Multi-functional optical tweezers using computer-generated holograms," Opt. Commun. 185, 77-82 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Curtis, B. A. Koss, and D. G. Grier, "Dynamic holographic optical tweezers," Opt. Commun. 207, 169-175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

R.W. Gerchberg andW. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35, 237-248 (1972).

Science (1)

W. H. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Y. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

N. J. Jenness, K. D. Wulff, M. S. Johannes, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, "Dynamic Maskless Holographic Lithography," Proceedings of ASME IDETC/CIE 2007 Micro- and Nanosystems (2007).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1794 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the holographic system. The SLM plane is imaged onto the pupil plane of the microscope objective using lenses (L) and mirrors (M).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) CAD representation of a square pyramid. (b) MATLAB plot of CAD structure discretized into points by layer. (c) Schematic of the single beam conversion into multiple focal points for parallel processing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Phase required for the (a) lateral positioning ϕ grating and (b) axial positioning ϕ lens of the individual points within a 3D structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Images from the CCD camera showing multiple focal points (number of points beneath each image) simultaneously displayed on a glass coverslip placed at the focal plane. Each image is of the entire 56 μm×42 μm microscope objective field of view.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optical light microscope video of the fabrication process (Media 1) and images showing the completion of pyramidal layers (a) 2, (b) 4, and (c) 6 during processing.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM images of four simultaneously created square pyramids at angles of (a) 20° and (b) 45° from the surface.

Equations (3)

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ϕ grating ( x holo , y holo ) = 2 π ( Δ x x holo + Δ y y holo ) ,
ϕ lens ( x holo , y holo ) = 2 π Δ f λ f 2 ( x holo 2 + y holo 2 ) ,
ϕ total = mod ( ϕ holo + ϕ grating + ϕ lens , 2 π ) .

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