Abstract

We theoretically investigated the properties of the effective four-level stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme in a cold gas of Cs atoms and molecules, where exists the tunnelling coupling between two excited molecular states due to the 0-g (6S,6P 3/2) double well structure. The double dark resonance is predicted in the absorption spectrum when the tunnelling coupling strength is large enough. The double dark resonance not only reveals the formation of the ultra-cold molecules, but also provides further evidence for the tunnelling as one effective coupling mechanism between the two excited molecular states. The effect of the various experimental conditions on this phenomena has been discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, "Nonlinear optical effects in a doubly driven four-level atom," Phys. Scr. 75,345-353 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. P. Niu, R. X. Li, and S. Q. Gong, "High efficiency four-wave mixing induced by double-dark resonances in a five-level tripod system," Phys. Rev. A 71, 043819 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Li and G. X. Huang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in a coherent six-level system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043809 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. D. Kleppner, "Professor Feshbach and His Resonance," Phys. Today 57, 12-14 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Y. Ling, H. Pu, and B. Seaman, "Creating a Stable Molecular Condensate Using a Generalized Raman Adiabatic Passage Scheme," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250403 (2004).
  19. K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
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  22. A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Laburthe Tolra, C. Drag and P. Pillet, "Observation of cold state-selected cesium molecules formed by stimulated Raman photoassociation," Phys. Rev. A 64, 061401(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. Vatasescu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, "Time-dependent analysis of tunneling effect in the formation of ultracold molecules via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 191-204 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency and parametric generation in a four-level system Reviewing of this paper was handled by a member of the Editorial Board," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 87-95 (2002);
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. "Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,"Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).
  30. M. Mackie, R. Kowalski, and J. Javanainen, "Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3803-3806 (2000).
  31. Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).
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2008 (2)

M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, "Nonlinear optical effects in a doubly driven four-level atom," Phys. Scr. 75,345-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Li and G. X. Huang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in a coherent six-level system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

2005 (3)

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Niu, R. X. Li, and S. Q. Gong, "High efficiency four-wave mixing induced by double-dark resonances in a five-level tripod system," Phys. Rev. A 71, 043819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

D. Kleppner, "Professor Feshbach and His Resonance," Phys. Today 57, 12-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ling, H. Pu, and B. Seaman, "Creating a Stable Molecular Condensate Using a Generalized Raman Adiabatic Passage Scheme," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250403 (2004).

S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency, slow light and enhanced nonlinear optics in a four-level scheme," J. Opt. B: Quantum and Semiclass Opt. 4, S372-S375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Vatasescu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, "Time-dependent analysis of tunneling effect in the formation of ultracold molecules via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 191-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency and parametric generation in a four-level system Reviewing of this paper was handled by a member of the Editorial Board," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 87-95 (2002);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

"Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,"Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).

B. Laburthe Tolra, C. Drag and P. Pillet, "Observation of cold state-selected cesium molecules formed by stimulated Raman photoassociation," Phys. Rev. A 64, 061401(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Mackie, R. Kowalski, and J. Javanainen, "Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3803-3806 (2000).

E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Timmermans, P. Tommasini, M. Hussein, and A. Kerman, "Feshbach resonances in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rep. 315, 199-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

1992 (1)

E. Tiesinga, A. J. Moerdijk, B. J. Verhaar, and H. T. C. Stoof, "Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium," Phys. Rev. A 46, R1167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amiot, C.

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouloufa, N.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chotia, A.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comparat, D.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

Crubellier, A.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

Denschlag, J. H.

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Drag, C.

B. Laburthe Tolra, C. Drag and P. Pillet, "Observation of cold state-selected cesium molecules formed by stimulated Raman photoassociation," Phys. Rev. A 64, 061401(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dulieu, O.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

Dutta, B. K.

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, "Nonlinear optical effects in a doubly driven four-level atom," Phys. Scr. 75,345-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evers, J.

M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fioretti, A.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

Fleischhaker, R.

M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freeland, R. S.

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gawlik, W.

G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).

Gong, S.

Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, S. Q.

Y. P. Niu, R. X. Li, and S. Q. Gong, "High efficiency four-wave mixing induced by double-dark resonances in a five-level tripod system," Phys. Rev. A 71, 043819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Han, D. J.

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. X.

H. J. Li and G. X. Huang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in a coherent six-level system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hussein, M.

E. Timmermans, P. Tommasini, M. Hussein, and A. Kerman, "Feshbach resonances in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rep. 315, 199-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Javanainen, J.

M. Mackie, R. Kowalski, and J. Javanainen, "Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3803-3806 (2000).

Jia, Suotang

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

Jin, S.

Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. Q.

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kash, M. M.

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A.

E. Timmermans, P. Tommasini, M. Hussein, and A. Kerman, "Feshbach resonances in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rep. 315, 199-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kleppner, D.

D. Kleppner, "Professor Feshbach and His Resonance," Phys. Today 57, 12-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency and parametric generation in a four-level system Reviewing of this paper was handled by a member of the Editorial Board," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 87-95 (2002);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency, slow light and enhanced nonlinear optics in a four-level scheme," J. Opt. B: Quantum and Semiclass Opt. 4, S372-S375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kokoouline, V.

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowal, Z.

G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).

Kowalski, R.

M. Mackie, R. Kowalski, and J. Javanainen, "Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3803-3806 (2000).

Laburthe Tolra, B.

B. Laburthe Tolra, C. Drag and P. Pillet, "Observation of cold state-selected cesium molecules formed by stimulated Raman photoassociation," Phys. Rev. A 64, 061401(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. J.

H. J. Li and G. X. Huang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in a coherent six-level system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

Y. P. Niu, R. X. Li, and S. Q. Gong, "High efficiency four-wave mixing induced by double-dark resonances in a five-level tripod system," Phys. Rev. A 71, 043819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H. Y.

H. Y. Ling, H. Pu, and B. Seaman, "Creating a Stable Molecular Condensate Using a Generalized Raman Adiabatic Passage Scheme," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250403 (2004).

Lukin, M. D.

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Jie

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

Mackie, M.

M. Mackie, R. Kowalski, and J. Javanainen, "Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3803-3806 (2000).

Mahapatra, P. K.

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, "Nonlinear optical effects in a doubly driven four-level atom," Phys. Scr. 75,345-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahmoudi, M.

M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masnou-Seeuws, F.

M. Vatasescu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, "Time-dependent analysis of tunneling effect in the formation of ultracold molecules via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 191-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

Moerdijk, A. J.

E. Tiesinga, A. J. Moerdijk, B. J. Verhaar, and H. T. C. Stoof, "Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium," Phys. Rev. A 46, R1167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y.

Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Y. P.

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Niu, R. X. Li, and S. Q. Gong, "High efficiency four-wave mixing induced by double-dark resonances in a five-level tripod system," Phys. Rev. A 71, 043819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paspalakis, E.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency and parametric generation in a four-level system Reviewing of this paper was handled by a member of the Editorial Board," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 87-95 (2002);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency, slow light and enhanced nonlinear optics in a four-level scheme," J. Opt. B: Quantum and Semiclass Opt. 4, S372-S375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pillet, P.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Laburthe Tolra, C. Drag and P. Pillet, "Observation of cold state-selected cesium molecules formed by stimulated Raman photoassociation," Phys. Rev. A 64, 061401(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

Pu, H.

H. Y. Ling, H. Pu, and B. Seaman, "Creating a Stable Molecular Condensate Using a Generalized Raman Adiabatic Passage Scheme," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250403 (2004).

Ritsch, H.

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, C.

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sahrai, M.

M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sautenkov, V. A.

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seaman, B.

H. Y. Ling, H. Pu, and B. Seaman, "Creating a Stable Molecular Condensate Using a Generalized Raman Adiabatic Passage Scheme," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250403 (2004).

Stoof, H. T. C.

E. Tiesinga, A. J. Moerdijk, B. J. Verhaar, and H. T. C. Stoof, "Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium," Phys. Rev. A 46, R1167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thalhammer, G.

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Theis, M.

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Tiesinga, E.

E. Tiesinga, A. J. Moerdijk, B. J. Verhaar, and H. T. C. Stoof, "Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium," Phys. Rev. A 46, R1167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Timmermans, E.

E. Timmermans, P. Tommasini, M. Hussein, and A. Kerman, "Feshbach resonances in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rep. 315, 199-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tommasini, P.

E. Timmermans, P. Tommasini, M. Hussein, and A. Kerman, "Feshbach resonances in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rep. 315, 199-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vatasescu, M.

M. Vatasescu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, "Time-dependent analysis of tunneling effect in the formation of ultracold molecules via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 191-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhaar, B. J.

E. Tiesinga, A. J. Moerdijk, B. J. Verhaar, and H. T. C. Stoof, "Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium," Phys. Rev. A 46, R1167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Viteau, M.

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, T.

E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Lirong

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

Wasik, G.

G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).

Welch, G. R.

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, K.

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Wynar, R.

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Liantuan

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

Xu, Z.

S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. F.

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C. Y.

C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yelin, S. F.

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zachorowski, J.

G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).

Zhao, Yanting

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

Zibrov, A. S.

C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Jie Ma, Lirong Wang, Yanting Zhao, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161101 (2007).

Eur. Phys. J. D (2)

M. Vatasescu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, "Time-dependent analysis of tunneling effect in the formation of ultracold molecules via photoassociation of laser-cooled atoms," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 191-204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0-g long-range state," Eur. Phys. J. D 5, 389-403 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency and parametric generation in a four-level system Reviewing of this paper was handled by a member of the Editorial Board," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 87-95 (2002);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. B: Quantum and Semiclass Opt. (1)

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, "Transparency, slow light and enhanced nonlinear optics in a four-level scheme," J. Opt. B: Quantum and Semiclass Opt. 4, S372-S375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

M. Mahmoudi, R. Fleischhaker, M. Sahrai and J. Evers, "Group velocity control in the ultraviolet domain via interacting dark-state resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 41, 025504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Yang, S. Q. Gong, Y. P. Niu, S. Q. Jin, and Z. Z. Xu, "Enhancement of four-wave mixing induced by interacting dark resonances," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, 2657-2663 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. S. Fry, M. D. Lukin, T. Walther and G. R. Welch, "Four-level atomic coherence and cw VUV lasers," Opt. Commun. 179, 499-504 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

E. Timmermans, P. Tommasini, M. Hussein, and A. Kerman, "Feshbach resonances in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates," Phys. Rep. 315, 199-230 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (12)

C. Y. Ye, A. S. Zibrov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and M. O. Scully, "Unexpected Doppler-free resonance in generalized double dark states," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Niu, R. X. Li, and S. Q. Gong, "High efficiency four-wave mixing induced by double-dark resonances in a five-level tripod system," Phys. Rev. A 71, 043819 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Li and G. X. Huang, "Highly efficient four-wave mixing in a coherent six-level system in ultraslow propagation regime," Phys. Rev. A 76, 043809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jin, S. Gong, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Coherent population transfer and superposition of atomic states via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using an excited-doublet four-level atom," Phys. Rev. A 69, 023408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Niu, S. Gong, R. Li, and S. Jin, "Creation of atomic coherent superposition states via the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage using a Λ-type system with a manifold of levels," Phys. Rev. A 70, 023805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yelin, V. A. Sautenkov, M. M. Kash, G. R. Welch, and M. D. Lukin, "Nonlinear optics via double dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

"Electromagnetically induced transparency and controlled group velocity in a multilevel system,"Phys. Rev. A 66, 015802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Wasik,W. Gawlik, J. Zachorowski, and Z. Kowal, "Competition of dark states: Optical resonances with anomalous magnetic field dependence," Phys. Rev. A 64, 051802(R) (2001).

B. Laburthe Tolra, C. Drag and P. Pillet, "Observation of cold state-selected cesium molecules formed by stimulated Raman photoassociation," Phys. Rev. A 64, 061401(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Vatasescu, O. Dulieu, C. Amiot, D. Comparat, C. Drag, V. Kokoouline, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, " Multichannel tunneling in the Cs2 0-g photoassociation spectrum," Phys. Rev. A 61, 044701 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Tiesinga, A. J. Moerdijk, B. J. Verhaar, and H. T. C. Stoof, "Conditions for Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetically trapped atomic cesium," Phys. Rev. A 46, R1167 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, A. Crubellier, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, "Formation of Cold Cs2 Molecules through Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4402-4405 (1998).

M. Mackie, R. Kowalski, and J. Javanainen, "Bose-Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage in Photoassociation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3803-3806 (2000).

H. Y. Ling, H. Pu, and B. Seaman, "Creating a Stable Molecular Condensate Using a Generalized Raman Adiabatic Passage Scheme," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 250403 (2004).

K. Winkler, G. Thalhammer, M. Theis, H. Ritsch, R. Grimm, and J. H. Denschlag, "Atom-Molecule Dark States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063202 (2005);
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

B. K. Dutta and P. K. Mahapatra, "Nonlinear optical effects in a doubly driven four-level atom," Phys. Scr. 75,345-353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

D. Kleppner, "Professor Feshbach and His Resonance," Phys. Today 57, 12-14 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. Viteau, A. Chotia, M. Allegrini, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, D. Comparat and P. Pillet, "Optical Pumping and Vibrational Cooling of Molecules," Science 321, 232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wynar, R. S. Freeland, D. J. Han, C. Ryu, and D. J. Heinzen, "Molecules in a Bose-Einstein Condensate," Science 287, 1016-1019 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, (1997).

H. Feshbach, Theoretical Nuclear Physics (Wiley, New York, 1992);
[CrossRef]

G. R. Jin, C. K. Kim, and K. Nahm, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate," condmat/ 0603094.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The level scheme. Δ and δ denote the detunings. The inner and outer molecular states |b 1,2〉 spontaneously decay with a rate γb 1,b 2 to levels outside this scheme. The molecular ground state |g〉 is contributed with a decay rate γg , which phenomenologically takes into account losses through inelastic collisions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Probe absorption spectra for different tunnelling rates. The parameters are Ω1=0.01γ ab1, Ω2=2γ ab1, γ ab2=0.2γ ab1, γag=0 and Δ=0. (a) σ12=0, (b) σ12=0.25γ ab1, (c) σ12 ab1, (d) σ12=10γ ab1, (e) σ12=20γ ab1, (f) σ12=40γ ab1

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online). Probe absorption spectra for different driving detuning, with Δ=0 (solid line), Δ=-γab 1 (dashed line), and Δ=-4γab 1 (dotted line) for Ω1=0.01γab 1, Ω2=2γab 1, γab 2=0.2γab 1, γag=0, σ12=γab 1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online). Probe absorption spectra for different pump frequencies and tunneling rate, with Ω2=2γab 1 (solid lines); Ω2=5γab 1 (dashed lines); Ω2=10γab 1 (dot lines). other parameters are Ω1=0.01γab 1, Δ=0, γab 2=0.2γab 1, γag=0. (a) σ12=γab 1, (b) σ12=4γab 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online). Analytical (solid line) and numerical (dotted line) calculations of probe absorptions with different driving field powers and probe field powers. Parameters used for the plot are Δ=0, γab 2=0.2γab 1, γag=0, σ12=γab 1, and (a) Ω1=0.01γab 1, Ω2=10γab 1, (b) Ω1=0.01γab 1, Ω2=2γab 1, (c) Ω1=0.1γab 1, Ω2=2γab 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Color online). Atom population as a function of probe detuning δ/γab 1 for different tunnelling rate, with σ12=0.5γab 1 (dashed line) and σ12=γab 1 (solid line). other parameters are Ω1=0.01γab 1, Ω2=2γab 1, γab 2=0.2γab 1,γag=0, Δ=0.

Equations (12)

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H = H 0 + H I + H t ,
H 0 = h ¯ ( δ + Δ ) b 1 b 1 + h ¯ ( δ + Δ ) b 2 b 2 + h ¯ δ g g ,
H I = h ¯ 2 ( Ω 1 b 1 aa + H . c . ) h ¯ 2 ( Ω 2 g b 2 + H . c . ) ,
H t = h ¯ σ 12 ( b 2 b 1 + b 1 b 2 ) .
t ρ ̂ μ ν = γ μ ν ρ ̂ μ ν i h ¯ [ ρ ̂ μ ν , H ] ,
t ρ b 1 a = [ i ( + Δ ) γ a b 1 ] ρ b 1 a i σ 12 ρ b 2 a i Ω 1 2 ( 4 ρ b 1 b 1 ρ aa ρ aa 2 ) ,
t ρ b 2 a = [ i ( δ + Δ ) γ ab 2 ] ρ b 2 a 2 i Ω 1 ρ b 2 b 1 ρ aa + i Ω 2 2 ρ ga i σ 12 ρ b 1 a ,
t ρ ga = ( i δ γ ag ) ρ ga + i Ω 2 2 ρ b 2 a 2 i Ω 1 ρ g b 1 ρ aa .
ρ b 1 a = i Ω 1 { Ω 2 2 4 + ( i δ + γ ag ) [ i ( Δ + δ ) + γ ab 2 ] } 1 2 Ω 2 2 [ i ( Δ + δ ) + γ ab 1 ] + 2 ( i δ + γ ag ) [ σ 12 2 + ( i Δ + i δ + γ ab 1 ) ( i Δ + i δ + γ ab 2 ) ] .
Im ( ρ b 1 a ) = 2 Ω 1 [ Ω 2 2 4 δ ( Δ + δ ) 2 ] [ Ω 2 2 2 2 δ ( Δ + δ ) ] 2 + [ Ω 2 2 2 ( Δ + δ ) + 2 δ σ 12 2 2 δ ( Δ + δ ) 2 ] 2 .
δ = Δ ± Δ 2 + Ω 2 2 2 ,
δ = 1 2 2 ( 2 σ 12 2 + Ω 2 2 2 )

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