Abstract

A swept-source optical coherence tomography system is used to clinically scan oral precancer and cancer patients for statistically analyzing the effective indicators of diagnosis. Three indicators are considered, including the standard deviation (SD) of an A-mode scan signal profile, the exponential decay constant (α) of an A-mode-scan spatial-frequency spectrum, and the epithelium thickness (T) when the boundary between epithelium and lamina propria can still be identified. Generally, in abnormal mucosa, the standard deviation becomes larger, the decay constant of the spatial-frequency spectrum becomes smaller, and epithelium becomes thicker. The sensitivity and specificity of the three indicators are discussed based on universal and individual relative criteria. It is found that SD and α are good diagnosis indicators for moderate dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. On the other hand, T is a good diagnosis indicator for epithelia hyperplasia and moderate dysplasia.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, "In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-?m swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 15, 6121-6139 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-10-6121.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Hori, Y. Yasuno, S. Sakai, M. Matsumoto, T. Sugawara, V. D. Madjarova, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yasui, T. Araki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Automatic characterization and segmentation of human skin using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 1862-1877 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-5-1862.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Global cancer statistics, 2002," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-12-11-2404.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2001

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, "Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-smokers: clinical and biologic characteristicsand implications for management," Curr. Opin. Oncol. 13, 176-182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Monogr. Oral Sci. 17, 32-55 Review (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Otis, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, B. W. Colston, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technology for dentistry," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131, 511-514 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, "In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-?m swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 15, 6121-6139 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-10-6121.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amazeen, P.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araki, T.

Armstrong, W.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, W. B.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, B. J.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beydoun, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bray, F.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Global cancer statistics, 2002," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

Chan, K. P.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Y.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Chong, C.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, J.

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, C. N.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colston, B. W.

L. L. Otis, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, B. W. Colston, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technology for dentistry," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131, 511-514 (2000).
[PubMed]

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Monogr. Oral Sci. 17, 32-55 Review (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, "Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 3582-3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Connolly, J.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, J. A.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cotrim, A. P.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crumley, R.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crumley, R. L.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

DaSilva, L. B.

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Monogr. Oral Sci. 17, 32-55 Review (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Duker, J.

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everett, M. J.

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Monogr. Oral Sci. 17, 32-55 Review (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Otis, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, B. W. Colston, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technology for dentistry," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131, 511-514 (2000).
[PubMed]

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, "Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 3582-3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldchtein, F.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894(2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferlay, J.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Global cancer statistics, 2002," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuer, E. J.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghafoor, A.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer-Wilson, M. J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N.

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, N. M.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894(2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Y.

Hori, Y.

Hsu, K.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s," Opt. Lett. 31, 2975-2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, R.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, R. P.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, W. G.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kies, M. S.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, "Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-smokers: clinical and biologic characteristicsand implications for management," Curr. Opin. Oncol. 13, 176-182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kreuter, K.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lingen, M.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, "Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-smokers: clinical and biologic characteristicsand implications for management," Curr. Opin. Oncol. 13, 176-182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Mahmood, U.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Matheny, E.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, M.

McAuliffe, M.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messadi, D.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, J. B.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Morosawa, A.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muanza, T. M.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, T.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nassif, N.

Nathel, H.

Nelson, J. S.

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osann, K.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otis, L. L.

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Monogr. Oral Sci. 17, 32-55 Review (2000).
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L. L. Otis, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, B. W. Colston, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technology for dentistry," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131, 511-514 (2000).
[PubMed]

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, "Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 3582-3585 (1998).
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Park, B. H.

Parkin, D. M.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Global cancer statistics, 2002," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perez, J.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

Pisani, P.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Global cancer statistics, 2002," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, B.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, J.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, J. M.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

Sakai, T.

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuels, A.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sathyam, U. S.

B. W. Colston, Jr., M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, L. B. DaSilva, and L. L. Otis, "Imaging of the oral cavity using optical coherence tomography," Monogr. Oral Sci. 17, 32-55 Review (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. Otis, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, B. W. Colston, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technology for dentistry," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131, 511-514 (2000).
[PubMed]

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D. C. Adler, Y. Chen, R. Huber, J. Schmitt, J. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Three-dimensional endomicroscopy using optical coherence tomography," Nature Photon. 1, 709-716 (2007).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shibuya, T.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, J.

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sowers, A. L.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroeve, P.

Sturgis, E. M.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, "Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-smokers: clinical and biologic characteristicsand implications for management," Curr. Opin. Oncol. 13, 176-182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, T.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Tearney, G. J.

Thun, M. J.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waite, W.

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wigdor, H.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilder-Smith, P.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, B.

W. Armstrong, J. Ridgway, D. Vokes, S. Guo, J. Perez, R. Jackson, M. Gu, J. Su, R. Crumley, T. Shibuya, U. Mahmood, Z. Chen, and B. Wong, "Optical Coherence Tomography of Laryngeal Cancer," The Laryngoscope 116, 1107-1113 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C. H.

Yasui, T.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Zhang, Q. Wang, B. Rao, Z. Chen, and K. Hsu, "Swept laser source at 1 ?m for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.

J. M. Ridgway, W. B. Armstrong, S. Guo, U. Mahmood, J. Su, R. P. Jackson, T. Shibuya, R. L. Crumley, M. Gu, Z. Chen, and B. J. Wong, "In vivo optical coherence tomography of the human oral cavity and oropharynx," Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 132, 1074-1081 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CA Cancer J. Clin.

D. M. Parkin, F. Bray, J. Ferlay, and P. Pisani, "Global cancer statistics, 2002," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,74-108 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, T. Murray, E. Ward, A. Samuels, R. C. Tiwari, A. Ghafoor, E. J. Feuer, and M. J. Thun, "Cancer statistics, 2005," CA Cancer J. Clin. 55,10-30 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

T. M. Muanza, A. P. Cotrim, M. McAuliffe, A. L. Sowers, B. J. Baum, J. A. Cook, F. Feldchtein, P. Amazeen, C. N. Coleman, and J. B. Mitchell, "Evaluation of radiation-induced oral mucositis by optical coherence tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 5121-5127 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wilder-Smith, M. J. Hammer-Wilson, J. Zhang, Q. Wang, K. Osann, Z. Chen, H. Wigdor, J. Schwartz, and J. Epstein "In vivo imaging of oral mucositis in an animal model using optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography," Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2449-2454 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Oncol.

M. Lingen, E. M. Sturgis, and M. S. Kies, "Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-smokers: clinical and biologic characteristicsand implications for management," Curr. Opin. Oncol. 13, 176-182 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron.

W. Jung, J. Zhang, J. Chung, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, J. S. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Advances in Oral Cancer Detection using Optical Coherence Tomography," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 811-817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Dent. Assoc.

L. L. Otis, M. J. Everett, U. S. Sathyam, B. W. Colston, Jr., "Optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technology for dentistry," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 131, 511-514 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

E. Matheny, N. Hanna, W. Jung, Z. Chen, and P. Wilder-Smith, "Optical coherence tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 978-981 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

P. Wilder-Smith, W. G. Jung, M. Brenner, K. Osann, H. Beydoun, D. Messadi, and Z. Chen, "In vivo optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of oral malignancy," Lasers Surg. Med. 35, 269-275 (2004).
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Monogr. Oral Sci.

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Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
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Opt. Express

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, "In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1-?m swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 15, 6121-6139 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-10-6121.
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894(2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889.
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S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=77825.
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S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, "High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 ?m wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 3598-3604 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-11-26-3598.
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M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11,2183-2189 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-11-18-2183.
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-12-11-2404.
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B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435.
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Y. Hori, Y. Yasuno, S. Sakai, M. Matsumoto, T. Sugawara, V. D. Madjarova, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yasui, T. Araki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Automatic characterization and segmentation of human skin using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 1862-1877 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-5-1862.
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Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimension and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Optics Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-13-26-10652.
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N. M. Hanna, W. Waite, K. Taylor, W. G. Jung, D. Mukai, E. Matheny, K. Kreuter, P. Wilder-Smith, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "Feasibility of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography of malignancy in hamster cheek pouches," Photomed. Laser Surg. 24, 402-409 (2006).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical Coherence Tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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B. Wong, R. Jackson, S. Guo, J. Ridgway, U. Mahmood, J. Shu, T. Shibuya, R. Crumley, M. Gu, W. Armstrong, and Z. Chen, " In Vivo Optical Coherence Tomography of the Human Larynx: Normative and Benign Pathology in 82 Patients," The Laryngoscope 115,1904-1911 (2005).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SS-OCT setup used for clinical scanning. PC: polarization controller, CIR: circulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Clinical photograph of a buccal squamous cell carcinoma. The red and blue arrows indicate SS-OCT scan positions for cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SS-OCT scanning images of the cancerous (a) and normal oral mucosal (b) tissues indicated by the red and blue arrows, respectively, in Fig. 2. In the cancerous tissue, the boundary between EP and LP layers disappeared in the whole B-mode scan range. The red and blue vertical lines (labeled as I and II, respectively) and horizontal white arrows indicate the ranges of detailed analyses later. PP: plastic plate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) A histology image of normal mucosa. (b) Histological image of an early invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Figs. 2 and 3(a). The EP is hyperplastic with MD and elongated epithelial ridges. Dysplastic cells breaking the basement membrane and invading into the lamina propria are also found in other areas which are not shown here. The undulated arrangement of the epithelial ridges is well shown in the left one-third portion of Fig. 3(a). The connective tissue papillae (indicated by arrows) here correspond to the almost vertical dark stripes in the left one-third portion of Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Parts (a) and (b): A-mode scan profiles of the red and blue vertical lines in Figs. 3(a) and (b), respectively, for the cancerous and normal oral mucosa. Parts (c) and (d) are obtained by Fourier transforming the profiles in parts (a) and (b), respectively, to demonstrate the spatial-frequency spectra. The exponential decay constants, α, of the spectra are shown.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Evaluated SD values as functions of lateral distance in the B-mode scans of the cancerous and normal oral mucosa with the ranges indicated by the horizontal white arrows in Figs. 3(a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Evaluated α values as functions of lateral distance in the B-mode scans of the cancerous and normal oral mucosa tissues with the ranges indicated by the horizontal white arrows in Figs. 3(a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) An SS-OCT scan image of an EH lesion, in which the boundary between EP and LP layers can still be identified. (b) Evaluated EP layer thickness, T, as a function of lateral distance in the B-mode scan.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

SD data point distributions of the four groups of data.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Decay constant, α, data point distributions of the four groups of data.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

T data point distributions of the three groups of data.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Receiver-operating characteristic curves of the three indicators. The letters next to the data points label the conditions shown in Tables 1, 3, and 5.

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specificity (%) and sensitivity (%) of using SD as a diagnosis indicator with various criteria from 0.085 to 0.16. N: number of sample. The labels of a-i for the SD values will be used for assigning the data points in Fig. 12.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Specificity (%) and sensitivity (%) of using SD as a diagnosis indicator for different groups of abnormal oral mucosal samples. N: number of sample.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Specificity (%) and sensitivity (%) of using the decay constant, α, as a diagnosis indicator with various criteria from 0.074 to 0.08 µm. N: number of sample. The labels of a-g for the α values will be used for assigning the data points in Fig. 12.

Tables Icon

Table 4. Specificity (%) and sensitivity (%) of using the decay constant, α, as a diagnosis indicator for different groups of abnormal oral mucosal samples. N: number of sample.

Tables Icon

Table 5. Specificity (%) and sensitivity (%) of using the epithelium thickness, T, as a diagnosis indicator with various criteria from 150 to 600 µm. N: number of sample. The labels of a-i for the T values will be used for assigning the data points in Fig. 12.

Tables Icon

Table 6. Specificity (%) and sensitivity (%) of using the epithelium thickness, T, as a diagnosis indicator for different groups of abnormal oral mucosal samples. N: number of sample.

Tables Icon

Table 7. Specificity and sensitivity (%) of using the relative SD as a diagnosis indicator for different groups of abnormal oral mucosal sample based on the normal control conditions of individual patients. N: sample number.

Tables Icon

Table 8. Specificity and sensitivity (%) of using the relative α as a diagnosis indicator for different groups of abnormal oral mucosal samples based on the normal control conditions of individual patients. N: number of sample.

Tables Icon

Table 9. Specificity and sensitivity (%) of using the relative T as a diagnosis indicator for different groups of abnormal oral mucosal samples based on the normal control conditions of individual patients. N: number of sample.

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