Abstract

The paper presents a novel methodology to retrieve the foreign-broadened water vapor continuum absorption coefficients in the spectral range 240 to 590 cm-1 and is the first estimation of the continuum coefficient at wave numbers smaller than 400 cm-1 under atmospheric conditions. The derivation has been accomplished by processing a suitable set of atmospheric emitted spectral radiance observations obtained during the March 2007 Alps campaign of the ECOWAR project (Earth COoling by WAter vapor Radiation). It is shown that, in the range 450 to 600 cm-1, our findings are in good agreement with the widely used Mlawer, Tobin-Clough, Kneizys-Davies (MT CKD) continuum. Below 450 cm-1 however the MT CKD model overestimates the magnitude of the continuum coefficient.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
[CrossRef]

2006

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Rowe, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Measurements of the foreign-broadened continuum of water vapor in the 6.3 μm band at -30 °C," Appl. Opt. Vol.  46 (18) 4366-4382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Rowe, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Measurements of the foreign-broadened continuum of water vapor in the 6.3 μm band at -30 °C," Appl. Opt. Vol.  46 (18) 4366-4382 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

2003

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. G. Cormier, R. Ciurylo, and J. R. Drummond, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy measurements of the infrared water vapor continuum," J. Chem. Phys. 116,10301034 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2000

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, "Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533-2536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Ma and R. H. Tipping, "The density matrix of H2O-N2 in the coordinate representation: A Monte Carlo calculation of the far-wing line shape," J. Chem. Phys 112(3), 574-584 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1999

C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, R. R. Garcia, and R. W. Portmann, "A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation Transfer," J. Geophys. Res. 104/D6,6021-6038 (1999)
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
[CrossRef]

U. Amato, D. De Canditiis, and C. Serio, "Effect of apodization on the retrieval of geophysical parameters from Fourier-transform spectrometers," Appl. Opt. 37, 6537-6543 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Sinha and J. E. Harries, "The Earth's Clear-Sky Radiation Budget and Water Vapor Absorption in the Far Infrared, " J. Clim. 10/7,1601-1614 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. -L. Moncet, "Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to Water Vapor," J. Geophys. Res. 97,15,761-15,785 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1989

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23,229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. W. Rosenkranz, "Pressure broadening of rotational bands. II. Water Vapor from 300 to 1100 cm-1," J. Chem. Phys. 87, 163-170 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Amato, U.

Belotti, C.

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Bhawar, R.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

Boukabara, S.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

Bozzo, A.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Brown, P. D.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Buijs, H. L.

Cacciani, M.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Cady-Pereira, K.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

Calvello, M. R.

C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Castagnoli, F.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ciurylo, R.

J. G. Cormier, R. Ciurylo, and J. R. Drummond, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy measurements of the infrared water vapor continuum," J. Chem. Phys. 116,10301034 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, "Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533-2536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. -L. Moncet, "Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to Water Vapor," J. Geophys. Res. 97,15,761-15,785 (1992)
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23,229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cormier, J. G.

J. G. Cormier, R. Ciurylo, and J. R. Drummond, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy measurements of the infrared water vapor continuum," J. Chem. Phys. 116,10301034 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, U.

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cuomo, V.

C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
[CrossRef]

Davies, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23,229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Canditiis, D.

Dedecker, R. G.

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Delamere, J. S.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Di Iorio, T.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Di Liberto, L.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

di Sarra, A.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. R.

J. G. Cormier, R. Ciurylo, and J. R. Drummond, "Cavity ringdown spectroscopy measurements of the infrared water vapor continuum," J. Chem. Phys. 116,10301034 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, R. G.

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Esposito, F.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
[CrossRef]

Fiocco, G.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Fuá, D.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. K.

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R. R.

C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, R. R. Garcia, and R. W. Portmann, "A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation Transfer," J. Geophys. Res. 104/D6,6021-6038 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

Grieco, G.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
[CrossRef]

Hannon, S. E.

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Harries, J. E.

A. Sinha and J. E. Harries, "The Earth's Clear-Sky Radiation Budget and Water Vapor Absorption in the Far Infrared, " J. Clim. 10/7,1601-1614 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Howell, H. B.

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Iacono, M. J.

S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, and J. -L. Moncet, "Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates: Application to Water Vapor," J. Geophys. Res. 97,15,761-15,785 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

I. E. Gordon, L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, D. Jacquemart, C. Boone, P. F. Bernath, M. W. Shephard, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough, Current updates of the water-vapor line list in HITRAN: A new diet for air-broadened half-widths, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  108, 389402, (2007) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.06.009
[CrossRef]

Jeseck, P.

L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, and R. W. Davies, "Line shape and the water vapor continuum," Atmos. Res. 23,229-241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
[CrossRef]

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, "Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533-2536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

Lesht, B. M.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liljegren, J. C.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lubrano, A. M.

A. M. Lubrano, C. Serio, S. A. Clough, and H. Kobayashi, "Simultaneous inversion for temperature and water vapor from IMG radiances," Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2533-2536 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Q.

Q. Ma and R. H. Tipping, "The density matrix of H2O-N2 in the coordinate representation: A Monte Carlo calculation of the far-wing line shape," J. Chem. Phys 112(3), 574-584 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Maestri, T.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
[CrossRef]

Masiello, G.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
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F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
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L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
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C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, R. R. Garcia, and R. W. Portmann, "A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation Transfer," J. Geophys. Res. 104/D6,6021-6038 (1999)
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S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
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C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, R. R. Garcia, and R. W. Portmann, "A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation Transfer," J. Geophys. Res. 104/D6,6021-6038 (1999)
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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Olson, W. B.

Palchetti, L.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
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L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
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C. J. Mertens, M. G. Mlynczak, R. R. Garcia, and R. W. Portmann, "A detailed evaluation of the stratospheric heat budget: 1. Radiation Transfer," J. Geophys. Res. 104/D6,6021-6038 (1999)
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
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D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
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L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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P. M. Rowe, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Measurements of the foreign-broadened continuum of water vapor in the 6.3 μm band at -30 °C," Appl. Opt. Vol.  46 (18) 4366-4382 (2006).
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Serio, C.

C. Serio, F. Esposito, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, M. R. Calvello, G. Grieco, V. Cuomo, H. L. Buijs, and C. B. Roy, "Interferometer for ground-based observations of emitted spectral radiance from the troposphere: evaluation and retrieval performance," Appl. Opt. 47, 3909-3919 (2008)
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R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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F. Esposito, G. Grieco, G. Masiello, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, C. Serio, and V. Cuomo, "Intercomparison of lineparameter spectroscopic databases using downwelling spectral radiance," Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133(S3) 191202 (2007), doi: 10.1002/qj.131
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S. A. Clough, M. W. Shephard, E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, M. J. Iacono, K. Cady-Pereira, S. Boukabara, and P. D. Brown, "Atmospheric radiative transfer modeling: a summary of the AER codes," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer,  91, 233-244, (2005) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2004.05.058
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
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L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
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L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
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D. C. Tobin, L. L. Strow, W. J. Lafferty, and W. B. Olson "Experimental investigation of the self- and N2-broadened continuum within the V2 band of water vapor," Appl. Opt. 35/24, 4724-4734 (1996).

Summa, D.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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L. Palchetti, C. Belotti, G. Bianchini, F. Castagnoli, B. Carli., U. Cortesi, M. Pellegrini, C. Camy-Peyret, P. Jeseck, and Y. Te, "First spectral measurement of the Earth??s upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer," Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 5025-5030 (2006).
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
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L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, W. W. McMillan, S. E. Hannon, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercombe, and R. O. Knuteson, "Impact of a new water vapor continuum and line shape model on observed high resolution infrared radiances," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 59, 303-317 (1998)
[CrossRef]

D. C. Tobin, L. L. Strow, W. J. Lafferty, and W. B. Olson "Experimental investigation of the self- and N2-broadened continuum within the V2 band of water vapor," Appl. Opt. 35/24, 4724-4734 (1996).

Tobin, D.C.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
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Todini, G.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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Tosi, E.

R. Bhawar, G. Bianchini, A. Bozzo, M. Cacciani, M. R. Calvello, M. Carlotti, F. Castagnoli, V. Cuomo, P. Di Girolamo, T. Di Iorio, L. Di Liberto, A. di Sarra, F. Esposito, G. Fiocco, D. Fuá, G. Grieco, T. Maestri, G. Masiello, G. Muscari, L. Palchetti, E. Papandrea, G. Pavese, R. Restieri, R. Rizzi, F. Romano, C. Serio, D. Summa, G. Todini, and E. Tosi, "Spectrally resolved observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the H2O rotation band," Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L04812, (2008), doi:10.1029/2007GL032207.
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Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, B. M. Lesht, S. A. Clough, J. C. Liljegren, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin, "Dry bias and variability in Vaisala RS80-H radiosondes: The ARM experience," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 20,117131 (2003).
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
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P. M. Rowe, V. P. Walden, and S. G. Warren, "Measurements of the foreign-broadened continuum of water vapor in the 6.3 μm band at -30 °C," Appl. Opt. Vol.  46 (18) 4366-4382 (2006).
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D. C. Tobin, F. A. Best, P. D. Brown, S. A. Clough, R. G. Dedecker, R. G. Ellingson, R. K. Garcia, H. B. Howell, R. O. Knuteson, E. J. Mlawer, H. E. Revercomb, J. F. Short, P. F. W. van Delst, and V. P. Walden, "Downwelling spectral radiance observations at the SHEBA ice station: Water vapor continuum measurements from 17 to 26 ?m," J. Geophys. Res. 04/D2,2081-2092 (1999)
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Example of (unapodized) spectral observations and related instrument noise (NESR in figure): (upper panel) I-BEST and (lower panel) REFIR-PAD. The observations refer to 9 March 2007. During the observations the PWV above Cervinia/Testa Grigia was 1.15/0.54 mm. Isolated spikes at the lower wave number range are the effect of point calibration errors due to water vapor absorption (saturated water vapor lines) within the interferometers path.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

REFIR-PAD synthetic spectrum (upper panel), simulated according to the at mospheric conditions observed on the day 9 March 2007, showing the window channels (red dots); (lower panel) the effective temperature of the window channels.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example of a continuum coefficient Jacobian for the spectral range of interest to our analysis.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Window channels, spectral ranges and effective temperatures for the three days analyzed in the paper. Spectral ranges differ each from other because they refer to different instruments and detector modes (see text).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Water vapor continuum coefficients (f ) for the range 240 to 590 cm-1 as derived from our analysis and comparison with two versions of MT CKD model [13] and Burch’s data (adapted from [5].)

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean observed and calculated radiance spectrum for the day 9 March 2007 (upper panel) and observed minus calculated (lower panel). The window channels are evidenced with dot symbols. Calculations are shown using MT_CKD (version 2.1) and continuum coefficients determined from the three case studies presented in this work.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the water vapor continuum coefficients, expressed as symmetrized spectral density function, C̃f, obtained in our analysis. The column average is the mean value of the three set of observations; the column has been filled through interpolation for wave numbers at which we have no observations. A comparison with theMT _CKD (version 2.1) values is provided in the table. The last column gives the percentage variation f=100×(Average-MT CKD)/(MT CKD) and the related uncertainty.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Scaling factors for the water vapor profiles as retrieved from the inversion process, for the case study of 9 March 2007 (Testa Grigia station). The scaling factors derived from the GBMS observations are shown, as well. The starting and end time refer to acquisition time period of the corresponding REFIR spectrum

Tables Icon

Table 3. As Tab. 2 but for the two case studies on 10 and 14 March 2007 (Cervinia station). Starting and end time refer to the acquisition time period of each I-BEST spectrum. For these two cases the water vapor first guess profiles were derived from Lidar observations and no preliminary scaling was applied before entering the inversion process.

Equations (25)

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k = k local + C f ( ρ f ρ o ) + C s ( ρ s ρ o )
C f = σ tanh ( h c σ 2 k b T ) C ˜ f ,
r = F ( s ; v )
c = ( c 1 ( σ 1 ) , , c L ( σ 1 ) , , c 1 ( σ i ) , , c L ( σ i ) , , c 1 ( σ N ) , , c L ( σ N ) ) t
r = r 0 + K c ( c c 0 ) + K T ( T T 0 ) + K q ( q q 0 ) + higher order terms
( F c 1 ( σ i ) , , F c L ( σ i ) )
y = K c x c + K T x T + K q x q
y = r r 0 ; x c = c c 0 ; x T = T T 0 ; x q = q q 0
T = T 0 + f T T 0 ;   q = q 0 + f q q 0
y = K c x c + a f T + b f q
a = K T T 0 ; b = K q q 0
T e ( σ j ) = Σ i = 1 L F c i ( σ j ) T i Σ i = 1 L F c i ( σ j )
H = ( H 1 H 2 H i H N )
K = K c · H
y = K x ˜ c + a f T + b f q
y ˜ = ( y 1 t , y 2 t , , y j t , , y M t ) t
y ˜ = K x ˜ c + A f ˜ T + B f ˜ q
A = ( a 1 , , a j , , a M ) ; B = ( b 1 , , b j , , b M )
y ˜ = G x ˜
G = ( K c , A , B )
x ˜ = ( x ˜ c f ˜ T f ˜ q )
x ˜ ̂ = ( G t S 1 G ) 1 G t S 1 y ˜
S x = ( G t S 1 G ) 1
c ¯ = k = j 1 j n w k c k ; with w k = S x 1 ( k , k ) Σ l = j 1 j n S x 1 ( l , l ) , k = j 1 , , j n
s c 2 = k 1 , k 2 = j 1 j n w k 1 w k 2 S x ( k 1 , k 2 )

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