Abstract

We studied the photoluminescence (PL) and photovoltaic current-voltage characteristics of the three-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cells by depositing Au nanoclusters on the cell surface. The increases of the PL intensity and short-circuit current after incorporation of Au nanoclusters are evident. An increase of 15.3 % in energy conversion efficiency (from 19.6 to 22.6 %) is obtained for the three-junction solar cells in which Au nanoclusters have been incorporated. We suggest that the increased light trapping due to radiative scattering from Au nanoclusters is responsible for improving the performance of the three-junction solar cells.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. G. Zimmermann, "Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023714 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yamaguchi, "III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75, 261-269 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, "Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3815-3817 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, "Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface Plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
  11. S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 077402 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-phase and gram-scale routes toward nearly monodisperse Au and other noble metal nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

2008

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. G. Zimmermann, "Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, "Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface Plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-phase and gram-scale routes toward nearly monodisperse Au and other noble metal nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamaguchi, "III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75, 261-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, "Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3815-3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, M. I.

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, M. M.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

Beeby, A.

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Derkacs, D.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, R. M.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donkers, R. L.

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edmondson, K. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, "Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface Plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C. M.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

FitzGerald, S.

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garriga, M.

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. M.

O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Hall, D. G.

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, "Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3815-3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harper, A. S.

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasenöhrl, S.

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, B.

O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, E.

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jana, N. R.

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-phase and gram-scale routes toward nearly monodisperse Au and other noble metal nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karam, N. H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katz, E. A.

O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khoury, J. T.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

King, R. R.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G. S.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korech, O.

O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kucera, M.

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kúdela, R.

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, H.

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Law, D. C.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. H.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. K.

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R. W.

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novák, J.

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohmori, M.

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. G.

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-phase and gram-scale routes toward nearly monodisperse Au and other noble metal nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Rand, B. P.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, "Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface Plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaaff, T. G.

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

Shafigullin, M. N.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

Shen, J. L.

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sherif, R. A.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stendal, A.

O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stenzel, O.

O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, H. R.

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, "Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3815-3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takamoto, T.

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

Vezmar, I.

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

Voigtsberger, K.

O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

von Borczyskowski, C.

O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whetten, R. L.

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

Wu, C. H.

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Yamaguchi, "III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75, 261-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. D.

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. J.

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, "Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface Plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, C. G.

C. G. Zimmermann, "Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. R. King, D. C. Law, K. M. Edmondson, C. M. Fetzer, G. S. Kinsey, H. Yoon, R. A. Sherif, N. H. Karam, "40% efficient metamorphic GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 183516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Stuart and D. G. Hall, "Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3815-3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, "Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface Plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Derkacs, S. H. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. T. Yu, "Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface Plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Korech, B. Hirsch, E. A. Katz, and J. M. Gordon, "High-flux characterization of ultrasmall multijunction concentrator solar cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 064101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

D. Lee, R. L. Donkers, G. Wang, A. S. Harper, and R. W. Murray, "Electrochemistry and optical absorbance and luminescence of molecule-like Au38 nanoparticles," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 6193-6199 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Jana and X. G. Peng, "Single-phase and gram-scale routes toward nearly monodisperse Au and other noble metal nanocrystals," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 14280-14281 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. P. Rand, P. Peumans, and S. R. Forrest, "Long-range absorption enhancement in organic tandem thin-film solar cells containing silver nanoclusters," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7519-7526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Zimmermann, "Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 023714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, "Surface Plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).

J. Phys. Chem. B

S. Link, A. Beeby, S. FitzGerald, M. A. El-Sayed, T. G. Schaaff, and R. L. Whetten, "Visible to infrared luminescence form a 28-atom gold cluster," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 3410-3415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Alvarez, J. T. Khoury, T. G. Schaaff, M. N. Shafigullin, I. Vezmar, and R. L. Whetten, "Optical absorption spectra of nanocrystal gold molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 3706-3712 (1997).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, and C. H. Wu, "Improvement of material quality for multi-junction solar cells with rapid thermal annealing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4499-4501(2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

J. Novák, S. Hasenöhrl, R. Kúdela, M. Kucera, M. I. Alonso, and M. Garriga, "Effect of strain and ordering on the band-gap energy of Inga," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 88, 139-142 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, "Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 077402 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

O. Stenzel, A. Stendal, K. Voigtsberger, and C. von Borczyskowski, "Enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of copper phthalocyanine thin film devices by incorporation of metal clusters," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 37, 337-348 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Yang, M. Yamaguchi, T. Takamoto, E. Ikeda, H. Kurita, and M. Ohmori, "Photoluminescence analysis of Inga top cells for high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 45, 331-339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamaguchi, "III-V compound multi-junction solar cells: present and future," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75, 261-269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image for the Au nanoclusters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

PL spectra of the three-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cells: (a) before and (b) after incorporation of Au nanoclusters

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Enhancement ratio of luminescence as a function of photon energy. The open circle (square) shows the measured data of the three-junction solar cells (InGaN/GaN LEDs). The solid line displays the calculated result using Eq. (3).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

I-V characteristics of the three-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cells: (a) without and (b) with incorporation of Au nanoclusters.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C sca = 1 2 π ( ) c ω 4 α 2 , C abs = ω c I m [ α ] ,
α = 3 V 0 ε ( ω ) ε m ε ( ω ) + 2 ε m ,
Q rad = C sca C sca + C abs ,

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