Abstract

Multiple precision selective micro-filling of a structured optical fibre using three luminescent dyes enables the simultaneous capture of red, blue and green luminescence within the core to generate white light. The technology opens up a new approach to integration and superposition of the properties of multiple materials to create unique composite properties within structured waveguides.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).
  2. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003)
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Canning, “Fresnel Optics Inside Optical Fibres,” in Photonics Research Developments, (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008) Chap. 4.
  4. G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).
  5. M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, “Fabrication of long period gratings using focussed ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 765–767 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).
  9. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).
  13. H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).
  14. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Fabrication of micro-channels in optical fibers using femtosecond laser pulses and selective chemical etching,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2559 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).
  16. Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).
  19. C. Martelli, J. Canning, D. Stocks, and M. Crossley, “Water-soluble porphyrin detection in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2100–2102 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Canning, “New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing,” 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).
  22. R. DiMaio, B. Kokuoz, and J. Ballato, “White light emissions through down-conversion of rare-earth doped LaF3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 14, 11412–11417 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-23-11412.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer New York, USA2005).
  24. C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).
  27. D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2007 (7)

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

1974 (1)

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).

1972 (1)

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R.

R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer New York, USA2005).

Aslund, M.

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

Astle, H. W.

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).

Ballato, J.

Barrosa, J.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beer, D.

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Bibra, M. L. von

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bibra, M. von

Birks, T. A.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

Bjarklev, A.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003)
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A. S.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003)
[Crossref]

Bozolan, A.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003)
[Crossref]

Brueckner, S.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Buckley, E.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).

Canning, J.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, D. Stocks, and M. Crossley, “Water-soluble porphyrin detection in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2100–2102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, “Fabrication of long period gratings using focussed ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 765–767 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Fresnel Optics Inside Optical Fibres,” in Photonics Research Developments, (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008) Chap. 4.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).

J. Canning, “New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing,” 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

Chesini, G.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Costela, A.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Crossley, M.

Cruz, C. H. B.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

Davies, B-L.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Digweed, K.

DiMaio, R.

dos Santos, E. M.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Facincani, T.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Moreno, I.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gibson, B.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

Gibson, B. C.

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

Groothoff, N.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

Hansom, K.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huntington, S.

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).

Huntington, S. T.

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

Kaiser, P.

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).

Kakarantzas, G.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

Kobelke, J.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Kokuoz, B.

Kristensen, M.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laesggard, J.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.

Lehmann, H.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Love, J.

Lyytikainen, K.

Mancuso, A. P.

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martelli, C.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Micromachining structured optical fibres using focussed ion beam (FIB) milling,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1575–1577 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Gibson, and S. Huntington, “Bend loss in structured optical fibres,” Opt. Express 15, 17639–17644 (2007).
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C. Martelli, J. Canning, D. Stocks, and M. Crossley, “Water-soluble porphyrin detection in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2100–2102 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Martelli, J. Canning, and K. Lyytikainen, “Water core Fresnel fibre,” Opt. Express 13, 3890–3895 (2005).
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C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

Muhammad, F. A.

G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

Olivero, P.

Ong, J. S. K.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Parson, W. W.

W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).

Prawer, S.

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

Rabeau, J. R.

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roberts, A.

M. von Bibra, A. Roberts, and J. Canning, “Fabrication of long period gratings using focussed ion beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 26, 765–767 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rollinson, C. M.

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

Rubanov, S.

B. C. Gibson, S. T. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed, J. Canning, and J. Love, “Exposure and characterization of nanostructured hole arrays hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibers using a combined FIB/SEM technique,” Opt. Express 13, 9023–28 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

Russell, J.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

Sastre, R.

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schuster, K.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Schwotzer, G.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Sørenson, H. R.

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

St., P.

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

Stocks, D.

Vaz, A. R.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weber, J.

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

Willsch, R.

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Xue, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zagari, J.

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Huang, Y. Xue, and A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low loss single material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021–39 (1974).

IEEE Proc. (1)

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St., and J. Russell, “Post processing of photonic crystal fibres using a CO2 laser beam: a step towards miniature compact fibre devices,” IEEE Proc. of the 2003 Joint Conf. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Information, Communications and Signal Processing, 2003, and the 4th Pacific Rim Conf. on Multimedia,  Vol. 1, pp.176–177, Singapore, (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Costela, I. Garcia-Moreno, J. Barrosa, and R. Sastre, “Laser performance of Coumarin 540 dye molecules in polymeric host media with different viscosities: From liquid solution to solid polymer matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 650–660 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. L. von Bibra, J. Canning, and A. Roberts, “Mode profile modification of H+ ion beam irradiated waveguides using UV processing,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 121–125 (1997).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. M. B. Cordeiro, C. J. S. de Matos, E. M. dos Santos, A. Bozolan, J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, G. Chesini, A. R. Vaz, and C. H. B. Cruz, “Towards practical liquid and gas sensing with photonic crystal fibres: side access to the fibre microstructure and single mode liquid core fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3075–3081 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (4)

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, B-L. Davies, and J. Zagari, “UV Laser Cleaving of Air-Polymer Structured Fibre,” Opt. Commun. 202, 139–143 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, J. Laesggard, and K. Hansom, “Liquid filling of photonic crystal fibres for grating writing,” Opt. Commun. 270, 207–210 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, B. C. Gibson, J. R. Rabeau, A. P. Mancuso, M. Aslund, and S. T. Huntington, “Air-Clad Optical Fibre Filament for Generating Broadband Radiation,” Opt. Commun. 273, 379–382 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. (1)

H. Lehmann, S. Brueckner, J. Kobelke, G. Schwotzer, K. Schuster, and R. Willsch, “Toward photonic crystal fiber based distributed chemosensors,” Proc. SPIE - 5855, 419–422, 17th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, (2005).

Sens. Actuators (1)

G. Stewart, F. A. Muhammad, and B. Culshaw, “Sensitivity improvement for evanescent-wave gas sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 11, 521–524 (1993).

Sensors (1)

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, and N. Groothoff, “Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction,” Sensors 7, 2492–2498 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

J. Canning, “New Trends in Structured Optical Fibres for Telecommunications and Sensing,” 5th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks and the 2nd International Symposium on Advances and Trends in Fiber Optics and Applications (ICOCN/ATFO 2006), Chengdu, China, (2006).

C. Martelli, P. Olivero, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, S. Prawer, S. Huntington, and B. Gibson, “Micromachining long period gratings in optical fibres using focussed ion beam,” OSA Topical Meeting: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity and Poling (BGPP 2007), Quebec City, Canada, (2007).

J. Canning, E. Buckley, N. Groothoff, and S. Huntington, “Laser Sculpting and Shaping of Air-Polymer Structured Fibres,” Proc. Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2003), Melbourne, Australia, 399–402 (2003).

C. M. Rollinson, S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, S. Rubanov, and J. Canning, “Nanostructures in tapered air-silica fibres,” Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology & Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, (ACOFT/OECC 08), Darling Harbour, Sydney, (2008).

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres, Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2003)
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Fresnel Optics Inside Optical Fibres,” in Photonics Research Developments, (Nova Science Publishers, United States, 2008) Chap. 4.

W. W. Parson, Modern optical Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).

R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References (Springer New York, USA2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the structured fibre used in the experiments. The coloured rings show where each dye is introduced and the anticipated emission with overlap in the core.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Precision micro-filling technique: a single channel fibre is spliced gently to the area within the structured fibre core to be filled and a dye inserted. Once completed, the fibre is broken at the splice and repositioned elsewhere to introduce the remaining dyes sequentially. Alternatively, a multiple channel fibre can be used.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption spectra of each dye: (a) Bulk absorption (190–700nm: spectrophotometer; in ethanol); (b) 20cm fibre transmission measurement (380–800nm: OSA; in ethanol); and (c) 20cm fibre transmission measurement (380–800nm: OSA; in ethylene glycol).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Luminescence observed at the output of three fibres with white light illumination, each containing: (a) Cresyl Violet 670 Perchlorate, (b) Coumarin 480, (c) Coumarin 540. The solvent is ethanol. Notably, in (a) the long wavelength in the red is best confined and the signal strongest in the core at the end of the fibre.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Three dyes inserted into the 3-ring structured optical fibre and illuminated with: (a) white light source and; (b) with a 266nm UV laser. In both cases a bubble is formed at the end of the fibre as some of the viscous ethylene glycol leaks out.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Emission spectra bulk samples exposed to quasi CW 5mW 266nm (a) 3 dyes combined. Also shown is the sum of the individual three dye emission spectra; (b) time spectra of Coumarin 540 with 266nm exposure; (c) time spectra of Cresyl Violet with 266nm exposure. A blue luminescent band appears ~480nm; (d) Coumarin dye emission with 266nm exposure. A centre peak ~500nm is observed. Of the three dyes only Coumarin 480 proved to be stable with 266nm excitation.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

“White” light emitted spectra from the output of the structured fibre containing three dyes individually placed every 600 around the core.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser dyes used in this work. Data sheets available from Exciton (www.exciton.com).

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