Abstract

We present the fabrication and use of plastic Photonic Band Gap Bragg fibers in photonic textiles for applications in interactive cloths, sensing fabrics, signage and art. In their cross section Bragg fibers feature periodic sequence of layers of two distinct plastics. Under ambient illumination the fibers appear colored due to optical interference in their microstructure. Importantly, no dyes or colorants are used in fabrication of such fibers, thus making the fibers resistant to color fading. Additionally, Bragg fibers guide light in the low refractive index core by photonic bandgap effect, while uniformly emitting a portion of guided color without the need of mechanical perturbations such as surface corrugation or microbending, thus making such fibers mechanically superior to the standard light emitting fibers. Intensity of side emission is controlled by varying the number of layers in a Bragg reflector. Under white light illumination, emitted color is very stable over time as it is defined by the fiber geometry rather than by spectral content of the light source. Moreover, Bragg fibers can be designed to reflect one color when side illuminated, and to emit another color while transmitting the light. By controlling the relative intensities of the ambient and guided light the overall fiber color can be varied, thus enabling passive color changing textiles. Additionally, by stretching a PBG Bragg fiber, its guided and reflected colors change proportionally to the amount of stretching, thus enabling visually interactive and sensing textiles responsive to the mechanical influence. Finally, we argue that plastic Bragg fibers offer economical solution demanded by textile applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007

2006

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Morikawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba, "Transmission characteristics of laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers," IEICE Electron Express 3, 70-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Zheng, N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, "Nonadaptive group testing based fiber sensor deployment for multiperson tracking," IEEE Sens. J. Color Res. Appl. 6, 490-494 (2006).

2005

I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, P. Uskokovic, R. Aleksic, "Indentation damage detection in thermoplastic composite laminates by using embedded optical fibers," J. Adv. Mater. 37, 33-37 (2005).

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, C. Amidei, K. Furrow, "Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications," Indian J. Fibre Textile Res. 30, 42-48 (2005).

M. Skorobogatiy, "Efficient anti-guiding of TE and TM polarizations in low index core waveguides without the need of omnidirectional reflector," Opt. Lett. 30, 2991 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

H. Fudouzi and Y. N. Xia, "Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers," Langmuir 19, 9653-9660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Express 11, 2589-2596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider,W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites Part A  34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Zhang, W. D. Gao, and H. Qiu, "Retro-reflection of round fibers," Textile Res. J. 73, 965-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Hardaker and R. V. Gregory, "Progress toward dynamic color-responsive "chameleon" fiber systems," MRS Bull. 28, 564-567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.S.C. Kuang and W.J. Cantwell, "Detection of impact damage in thermoplastic-based glass fiber composites using embedded optical fiber sensors," J. Thermoplastic Composite Mat. 16, 213-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. D???Amato, "Stress-strain monitoring in textile composites by means of optical fibers," Exp.Techniques & Design in Composite Mat. 221, 245-253 (2002).

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

2000

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

1999

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

A. Sirikasemlert and X. Tao, "Effects of fabric parameters on specular reflection of single-jersey knitted fabrics," Textile Res. J. 69, 663-675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Rubin, "Tailored fiber cross sections," Adv. Mater. 10, 1225-1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Busch and S. John "Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tunable Electromagnetic Vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafekis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, "The 'glowing??? optical fibre designs and parameters," Proc. SPIE 2967, 231-6 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Prediction and verification of an iridescent synthetic fiber," Appl. Opt. 36, 6388-6392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Grasso, B. D. Hunn, A. M. Rewerts, "Effect of textile properties in evaluating a directional shading fabric," Textile Res. J. 67, 233-247 (1997).

1996

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, "Photonic textile fibers," Appl. Opt. 35, 91-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Modeling the dependence of fabric reflectance on denier per filament," Textile Res. J. 64, 685-689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Kabeel, W. A. Ramadan, A. A. Hamza, "A contribution to the study of color of fabrics," Color Res. Appl. 17, 219-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

I. Maekawa, T. Gunji, T. Tsuboi, "Study on optical properties of silk-like fabrics," J. Textile Machinery Soc. Japan 30, 18-27 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Abouraddy, A. F.

Aleksic, R.

I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, P. Uskokovic, R. Aleksic, "Indentation damage detection in thermoplastic composite laminates by using embedded optical fibers," J. Adv. Mater. 37, 33-37 (2005).

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aleksici, R.

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

Amidei, C.

S. Ghosh, C. Amidei, K. Furrow, "Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications," Indian J. Fibre Textile Res. 30, 42-48 (2005).

Argyros, A.

Balac, I.

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, "Photonic textile fibers," Appl. Opt. 35, 91-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

Bassett, I.

Benoit, G.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Boismenu, F.

Brady, D. J.

Y. H. Zheng, N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, "Nonadaptive group testing based fiber sensor deployment for multiperson tracking," IEEE Sens. J. Color Res. Appl. 6, 490-494 (2006).

Brajovic, L.

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, P. Uskokovic, R. Aleksic, "Indentation damage detection in thermoplastic composite laminates by using embedded optical fibers," J. Adv. Mater. 37, 33-37 (2005).

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Brown, P.

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John "Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tunable Electromagnetic Vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Camenzind, M.

B. Selem, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cantwell, W. J.

K.S.C. Kuang and W.J. Cantwell, "Detection of impact damage in thermoplastic-based glass fiber composites using embedded optical fiber sensors," J. Thermoplastic Composite Mat. 16, 213-229 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D???Amato, E.

E. D???Amato, "Stress-strain monitoring in textile composites by means of optical fibers," Exp.Techniques & Design in Composite Mat. 221, 245-253 (2002).

de Sterke, C. M.

Deyerl, H. -J.

Dubois, C.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, A.

Eijkelenborg, M.

El-Sherif, M. A.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

Engeness, T. D.

Fink, Y.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foulger, S.

Fudouzi, H.

H. Fudouzi and Y. N. Xia, "Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers," Langmuir 19, 9653-9660 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, T.

K. Morikawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba, "Transmission characteristics of laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers," IEICE Electron Express 3, 70-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Furrow, K.

S. Ghosh, C. Amidei, K. Furrow, "Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications," Indian J. Fibre Textile Res. 30, 42-48 (2005).

Gao, W. D.

H. Q. Zhang, W. D. Gao, and H. Qiu, "Retro-reflection of round fibers," Textile Res. J. 73, 965-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gauvreau, B.

A. Dupuis, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, E. Pone, F. Boismenu, andM. Skorobogatiy, "Guiding in the visible with "colorful" solid-core Bragg fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2882-2884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, C. Amidei, K. Furrow, "Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications," Indian J. Fibre Textile Res. 30, 42-48 (2005).

Grasso, M. M.

M. M. Grasso, B. D. Hunn, A. M. Rewerts, "Effect of textile properties in evaluating a directional shading fabric," Textile Res. J. 67, 233-247 (1997).

Gregory, R. V.

S. S. Hardaker and R. V. Gregory, "Progress toward dynamic color-responsive "chameleon" fiber systems," MRS Bull. 28, 564-567 (2003).
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I. Maekawa, T. Gunji, T. Tsuboi, "Study on optical properties of silk-like fabrics," J. Textile Machinery Soc. Japan 30, 18-27 (1984).
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Guo, N.

A. Dupuis, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, E. Pone, F. Boismenu, andM. Skorobogatiy, "Guiding in the visible with "colorful" solid-core Bragg fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2882-2884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamza, A. A.

T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Kabeel, W. A. Ramadan, A. A. Hamza, "A contribution to the study of color of fabrics," Color Res. Appl. 17, 219-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T.

Hardaker, S. S.

S. S. Hardaker and R. V. Gregory, "Progress toward dynamic color-responsive "chameleon" fiber systems," MRS Bull. 28, 564-567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harlin, A.

A. Harlin, M. Makinen, A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, (2003).

Hart, S. D.

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
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Hatcher, M.

M. Hatcher, "France telecom debuts fiber screen," Optics.org News, Jul 2 (2002).

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J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider,W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites Part A  34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, D. S.

Huang, Y.

Hunn, B. D.

M. M. Grasso, B. D. Hunn, A. M. Rewerts, "Effect of textile properties in evaluating a directional shading fabric," Textile Res. J. 67, 233-247 (1997).

Ibanescu, M.

Jacobs, S. A.

Jakobsen, C.

Jelinska-Platace, W.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafekis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, "The 'glowing??? optical fibre designs and parameters," Proc. SPIE 2967, 231-6 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

O. Shapira, K. Kuriki, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, G. Benoit, J. F. Viens, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Surface-emitting fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 3929-3935 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weiseberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large core OmniGuide fibers," Opt. Express 9, 748 (2001).
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John, S.

K. Busch and S. John "Liquid-Crystal Photonic-Band-Gap Materials: The Tunable Electromagnetic Vacuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
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Johnson, S. G.

Kabeel, M. A.

T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Kabeel, W. A. Ramadan, A. A. Hamza, "A contribution to the study of color of fabrics," Color Res. Appl. 17, 219-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khan, T.

B. Selem, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kobsa, H.

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Prediction and verification of an iridescent synthetic fiber," Appl. Opt. 36, 6388-6392 (1997).
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B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Modeling the dependence of fabric reflectance on denier per filament," Textile Res. J. 64, 685-689 (1994).
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Kojovic, A.

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

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V. Koncar, "Optical fiber fabric displays," Opt. Photon. News 16, 40-4 (2005).
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K. Morikawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba, "Transmission characteristics of laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers," IEICE Electron Express 3, 70-73 (2006).
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Krivokuca, M.

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

Kuang, K. S. C.

K.S.C. Kuang and W.J. Cantwell, "Detection of impact damage in thermoplastic-based glass fiber composites using embedded optical fiber sensors," J. Thermoplastic Composite Mat. 16, 213-229 (2003).
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Kuriki, K.

Large, M.

Larsen, T. T.

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, "Photonic textile fibers," Appl. Opt. 35, 91-1994 (1996).
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Lee, R.

Li, W.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider,W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites Part A  34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDiarmid, A.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

Maekawa, I.

I. Maekawa, T. Gunji, T. Tsuboi, "Study on optical properties of silk-like fabrics," J. Textile Machinery Soc. Japan 30, 18-27 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Makinen, M.

A. Harlin, M. Makinen, A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, (2003).

Martinu, L.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maskaly, G. R.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McPhedran, R.

Mignanelli, M.

Miljkovic, M.

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

Mitrakovic, D.

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

Morikawa, K.

K. Morikawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba, "Transmission characteristics of laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers," IEICE Electron Express 3, 70-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N.

Nicorovici, N. A.

Orf, N.D.

Pacheco, D. P.

R. M. Balachandran, D. P. Pacheco, N. M. Lawandy, "Photonic textile fibers," Appl. Opt. 35, 91-1994 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfafrods, D.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafekis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, "The 'glowing??? optical fibre designs and parameters," Proc. SPIE 2967, 231-6 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pitsianis, N. P.

Y. H. Zheng, N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, "Nonadaptive group testing based fiber sensor deployment for multiperson tracking," IEEE Sens. J. Color Res. Appl. 6, 490-494 (2006).

Pone, E.

A. Dupuis, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, A. Hassani, E. Pone, F. Boismenu, andM. Skorobogatiy, "Guiding in the visible with "colorful" solid-core Bragg fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2882-2884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prideaux, P. H.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Putic, S.

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Putic, S. S.

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

Qiu, H.

H. Q. Zhang, W. D. Gao, and H. Qiu, "Retro-reflection of round fibers," Textile Res. J. 73, 965-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rajabian, M.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramadan, W. A.

T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Kabeel, W. A. Ramadan, A. A. Hamza, "A contribution to the study of color of fabrics," Color Res. Appl. 17, 219-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

Rewerts, A. M.

M. M. Grasso, B. D. Hunn, A. M. Rewerts, "Effect of textile properties in evaluating a directional shading fabric," Textile Res. J. 67, 233-247 (1997).

Rodriguez, A.

Rothmaier, M.

B. Selem, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, B.

B. Rubin, "Tailored fiber cross sections," Adv. Mater. 10, 1225-1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Prediction and verification of an iridescent synthetic fiber," Appl. Opt. 36, 6388-6392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Modeling the dependence of fabric reflectance on denier per filament," Textile Res. J. 64, 685-689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Russell, R. S. J.

Saitoh, K.

K. Morikawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba, "Transmission characteristics of laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers," IEICE Electron Express 3, 70-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, J.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider,W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites Part A  34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Selem, B.

B. Selem, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shapira, O.

Shearer, S. M.

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Prediction and verification of an iridescent synthetic fiber," Appl. Opt. 36, 6388-6392 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Rubin, H. Kobsa, S. M. Shearer, "Modeling the dependence of fabric reflectance on denier per filament," Textile Res. J. 64, 685-689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simic, M.

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H.

Sirikasemlert, A.

A. Sirikasemlert and X. Tao, "Effects of fabric parameters on specular reflection of single-jersey knitted fabrics," Textile Res. J. 69, 663-675 (1999).
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Skorobogata, O.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Sokkar, T. Z. N.

T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Kabeel, W. A. Ramadan, A. A. Hamza, "A contribution to the study of color of fabrics," Color Res. Appl. 17, 219-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

Sorensen, T.

Spigulis, J.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafekis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, "The 'glowing??? optical fibre designs and parameters," Proc. SPIE 2967, 231-6 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stafekis, M.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafekis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, "The 'glowing??? optical fibre designs and parameters," Proc. SPIE 2967, 231-6 (1997).
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Takanabe, H.

S. Yamaguchi and H. Takanabe, "Fibers having fine concave and convex surface from silica hybrid polyester," Sen-I akkaishi 57, 111-119 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X.

A. Sirikasemlert and X. Tao, "Effects of fabric parameters on specular reflection of single-jersey knitted fabrics," Textile Res. J. 69, 663-675 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers," Science 296, 510-513 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terrel, M.

Trahan, M.

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider,W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites Part A  34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, T.

I. Maekawa, T. Gunji, T. Tsuboi, "Study on optical properties of silk-like fabrics," J. Textile Machinery Soc. Japan 30, 18-27 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Uskokovic, P.

I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, P. Uskokovic, R. Aleksic, "Indentation damage detection in thermoplastic composite laminates by using embedded optical fibers," J. Adv. Mater. 37, 33-37 (2005).

Uskokovic, P. S.

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

Vienne, G.

Viens, J. F.

Vuorivirta, A.

A. Harlin, M. Makinen, A. Vuorivirta, "Development of polymeric optical fibre fabrics as illumination elements and textile displays," AUTEX Res. J. 3, (2003).

Walt, H.

B. Selem, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wani, K.

Weiseberg, O.

Xia, Y. N.

H. Fudouzi and Y. N. Xia, "Colloidal crystals with tunable colors and their use as photonic papers," Langmuir 19, 9653-9660 (2003).
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Xu, Y.

Yamaguchi, S.

S. Yamaguchi and H. Takanabe, "Fibers having fine concave and convex surface from silica hybrid polyester," Sen-I akkaishi 57, 111-119 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yuan, J. M.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

Zabeida, O.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

Zhang, H. Q.

H. Q. Zhang, W. D. Gao, and H. Qiu, "Retro-reflection of round fibers," Textile Res. J. 73, 965-970 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. H.

Y. H. Zheng, N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, "Nonadaptive group testing based fiber sensor deployment for multiperson tracking," IEEE Sens. J. Color Res. Appl. 6, 490-494 (2006).

Zivkovic, I.

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, P. Uskokovic, R. Aleksic, "Indentation damage detection in thermoplastic composite laminates by using embedded optical fibers," J. Adv. Mater. 37, 33-37 (2005).

Adv. Compos. Lett.

P. S. Uskokovic, M. Miljkovic, M. Krivokuca, S. S. Putic, R. Aleksici, "An intensity based optical fibre sensor for flexural damage detection in woven composites," Adv. Compos. Lett. 8, 55-58 (1999).

Adv. Eng. Mater.

P. S. Uskokovic, I. Balac, L. Brajovic, M. Simic, S. Putic, and R. Aleksic, "Delamination detection in woven composite laminates with embedded optical fibers," Adv. Eng. Mater. 3, 492-496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

B. Rubin, "Tailored fiber cross sections," Adv. Mater. 10, 1225-1227 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Benoit, S. D. Hart, B. Temelkuran, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, "Static and dynamic properties of optical micro-cavities in photonic bandgap yarns," Adv. Mater. 15, 2053-2056, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Color Res. Appl.

T. Z. N. Sokkar, M. A. Kabeel, W. A. Ramadan, A. A. Hamza, "A contribution to the study of color of fabrics," Color Res. Appl. 17, 219-224 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Composotes, Part A

J. Schuster, M. Trahan, D. Heider,W. Li, "Influence of fabric ties on the performance of woven-in optical fibres," Composites Part A  34, 855-861 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process

A. Kojovic, I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, D. Mitrakovic, R. Aleksic, "Low energy impact damage detection in laminar termoplastic composite materials by means of embedded optical fibers," Curr. Res. Adv. Mater. Process 494, 481-486 (2005).

IEEE Sens. J. Color Res. Appl.

Y. H. Zheng, N. P. Pitsianis, D. J. Brady, "Nonadaptive group testing based fiber sensor deployment for multiperson tracking," IEEE Sens. J. Color Res. Appl. 6, 490-494 (2006).

IEICE Electron Express

K. Morikawa, T. Fujisawa, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba, "Transmission characteristics of laterally illuminated photonic crystal fibers," IEICE Electron Express 3, 70-73 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Indian J. Fibre Textile Res.

S. Ghosh, C. Amidei, K. Furrow, "Development of a sensor-embedded flexible textile structure for apparel or large area applications," Indian J. Fibre Textile Res. 30, 42-48 (2005).

J. Adv. Mater.

I. Zivkovic, L. Brajovic, P. Uskokovic, R. Aleksic, "Indentation damage detection in thermoplastic composite laminates by using embedded optical fibers," J. Adv. Mater. 37, 33-37 (2005).

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. Selem, M. Rothmaier, M. Camenzind, T. Khan, H. Walt, "Novel flexible light diffuser and irradiation properties for photodynamic therapy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 034024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Intel Mater. Syst. Struct.

M. A. El-Sherif, J. M. Yuan, A. MacDiarmid, "Fiber optic sensors and smart fabrics," J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 11, 407-414 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mater. Res.

Y. Gao, N. Guo, B. Gauvreau, M. Rajabian, O. Skorobogata, E. Pone, O. Zabeida, L. Martinu, C. Dubois, M. Skorobogatiy, "Consecutive solvent evaporation and co-rolling techniques for polymer multilayer hollow fiber preform fabrication," J. Mater. Res. 21, 2246-2254 (2006).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Light extraction from optical fibers. a) Microbending in TIR fibers. b) Surface corrugation in TIR fibers. c) Leaky modes in straight hollow core PBG fibers. d) Leaky modes in straight low refractive index solid core PBG fibers with scatterers at the fiber/air interface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Colorful PBG Bragg fibers. a) When launching white light into the Bragg fibers, after a few cm from the coupling end the fibers appear intensely colored. Color of an individual fiber is defined by the spectral position of the fiber reflector bandgap. b) Under ambient illumination, semi-transparent Bragg fibers appear colored again. Fiber color in reflection of the ambient light can be different from the color due to emission of guided light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

a) Solid core plastic Bragg fiber preform and a resultant fiber. b) Band diagram of the modes of a solid PMMA core Bragg fiber with a PMMA/PS reflector. Colors of the emitted and reflected light from the Bragg fibers are determined by the positions of the fiber reflector bandgaps.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) Schematic of a color changing fiber. Color of a PBG fiber can be varied by mixing the emitted guided color with the reflected color from ambient illumination. b) Experimental demonstration of color mixing. c) A collection of lit fibers under strong ambient illumination. Both the emitted guided colors (especially visible at the fiber peripheries) and the reflected colors (especially visible along the fiber center lines) are visible.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

a) RGB yarn in the form of a braid of three fibers of R, G and B colors. b) Schematic of a color-on-demand textile setup.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PBG Bragg fiber-based textile with a white silk matrix. When externally illuminated the textile appears highly reflective showing stripes of different colors. When looked closely, the colored stripes are made of fibers of similar diameters; supporting silk ground cloth is visible through the transparent colored fibers.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Launching light into a PBG fiber-based textile under the medium ambient illumination and in the dark (view from the top). At the tightly weaved textile edge strong radiation loss is observed due to macro-bending of small diameter fibers. Thicker fibers persist into textile without too much bending at the edge, lighting up the sample with the guided color.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

PBG Bragg fiber-based textile with a black silk matrix. Before weaving, individual fibers were roughly sorted by their two colors in the reflection and emission modes. Therefore, both unlit and lit textile appears to be made of wide bands of distinct colors. a) Textile appearance under ambient illumination. b) Textile appearance when the white light is launch into it, while still under the ambient illumination. c) Colors of various textile patches under ambient illumination with or without the light going through the fibers.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

PBG fiber textile and light coupling setup. a) Lit textile under the normal ambient illumination in the laboratory. b) Lit textile in the dark.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Stretching of plastic Bragg fibers. a) Transmission spectra of a Bragg fiber sample subjected to longitudinal stretching. Fiber elongation results in the shift of the fiber transmission peak to shorter wavelengths due to Bragg reflector thinning. In the inset: photo of an experimental setup. Collimated beam of a supercontinuum white light source is injected into a Bragg fiber sample which is clamped at both ends to the rigid support blocks. b) Linear shift of the transmission peak wavelength with respect to the Bragg fiber elongation with a slope of 1 . 73 n m % .

Equations (1)

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λ c 2 = d h n h 2 n c 2 + d l n l 2 n c 2 ,

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