Abstract

Tunable silicon microring filters are used to demonstrate CMOS-compatible on-chip wavelength control of Er+ doped fiber-lasers. An on-chip Ni-Cr micro-heater consuming up to 20 mW is capable of tuning the Si microring filter by 1.3 nm with a lasing linewidths narrower than 0.02 nm. This approach enables arbitrary multiple wavelength generation on a silicon chip. Possible applications include on-chip and chip-to-chip dense-wavelength division multiplexed communications and sensor interrogation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, "Integrated mode-evolution-based polarization splitter," Opt. Lett. 30, 967-969 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-9-967.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9203.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, "Highly Efficient, Ultra Low Dark Current Germanium Photodetectors Integrated on Submicron Silicon Waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CWF3.http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CWF3.
  8. D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate," Opt. Express 15, 13965-13971 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13965
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, and W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry-Perot microcavities," Opt. Express 15, 7557-7563 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7557.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon," Proc. SPIE,  704, 32-37 (1987).
  16. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-15-1302.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale all-optical wavelength converter on silicon," Opt. Lett. 30, 2733-2735 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-20-2733.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. B. E. Little, J. -P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, "Surface-roughness-induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators," Opt. Lett. 22, 4-6 (1997). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-1-4.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

2004 (5)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon," Proc. SPIE,  704, 32-37 (1987).

Ahn, D.

Almeida, V. R.

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beals, M.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon," Proc. SPIE,  704, 32-37 (1987).

Bowers, J. E.

Boyraz, O.

Carriere, J. T. A.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chetrit, Y.

Chu, S. T.

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, A. W.

Ferraro, M. S.

Frantz, J. A.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M.W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Hong, C.

Honkanen, S.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jalali, B.

Jones, R.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kostuk, R. K.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. -P.

Li, D.

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, T.

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T.M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J.

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. A.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S.

Michel, J.

Morse, M. M.

Nawrocka, M. S.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H.

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-15-1302.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Pathak, K.

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruessner, M. W.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Rong, H.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

Sarid, G.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon," Proc. SPIE,  704, 32-37 (1987).

Spector, S.J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T. H.

Vlasov, Y.

Wang, M. R.

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Williamson, R.C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yin, T.

Youmans, B. R.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, and R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 071110-071113, (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, "1x4 wavelength reconfigurable photonic switch using thermally tuned microring resonators fabricated on silicon substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 704 -706 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. A. Martinez, M. S. Nawrocka and R. R. Panepucci, "Compact thermally tunable silicon wavelength switch: modeling and characterization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 936-938 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, and R. K. Kostuk, "Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134-1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, "Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser," Opt. Express 12, 5269-5273 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9203.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Express 15, 3916-3921 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-7-3916
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, and W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry-Perot microcavities," Opt. Express 15, 7557-7563 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7557.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate," Opt. Express 15, 13965-13971 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13965
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electrooptical switching in silicon," Proc. SPIE,  704, 32-37 (1987).

Other (1)

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, "Highly Efficient, Ultra Low Dark Current Germanium Photodetectors Integrated on Submicron Silicon Waveguides," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CWF3.http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CWF3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Experimental setup of the tunable laser (b) top view microscopic picture of fabricated switch element

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Transmission spectrum of the filter using unpolarized ASE source. Lasing spectra of: (b) TE mode; (c) TM mode; and (d) simultaneous lasing of both TE and TM modes. Insets show corresponding top view infrared images of the ring area during lasing.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Laser output power versus the EDF pumping bias current. Inset shows the EDF gain at 1550 nm for different input power at pumping current from 100 mA to 400 mA

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Filter spectra and (b) lasing spectra at applied heating current of 0, 1, 3 and 5mA (c) filter and lasing peak wavelength shift versus applied heating power.

Metrics