Abstract

We have demonstrated that an addition of highly concentrated rhodamine 6G chloride dye to the PMMA film adjacent to a silver film can cause 30% elongation of the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). The possibility to elongate the SPP propagation length without optical gain opens a new technological dimension to low-loss nanoplasmonic and metamaterials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102-1104 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, "Localization and Waveguiding of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Random Nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Boltasseva, S. Bozhevolnyi, T. Søndergaard, T. Nikolajsen, and K. Leosson, "Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 4237-4243 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Sirtori, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Long-wavelength (? ~ 8-11.5 µm) semiconductor lasers with waveguides based on surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 23, 1366-1368 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. A. Klar; A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Wangberg, J. Elser, E. E. Narimanov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Nonmagnetic nanocomposites for optical and infrared negative-refractive-index media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 498-505 (2006).
  12. J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, "Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. N. Sudarkin and P. A. Demkovich, "Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on the boundary of a metal with an amplifying medium," Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 764-766 (1989).
  14. I. Avrutsky, "Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain," Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416 (2004).
  15. M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz and Y. Fainman, "Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4072-4079 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. M. Lawandy, "Localized surface plasmon singularities in amplifying media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040-5042 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, J. Adegoke, C. E. Small, B. A. Ritzo, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Enhancement of surface plasmons in an Ag aggregate by optical gain in a dielectric medium," Opt. Lett. 31, 3022-3024 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, "Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. A. Noginov, V. A. Podolskiy, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, M. Bahoura, J. A. Adegoke, B. A. Ritzo, and K. Reynolds, "Compensation of loss in propagating surface plasmon polariton by gain in adjacent dielectric medium," Opt. Express 16, 1385-1392 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
  21. D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, "Comments on the Optical Constants of Metals and an Introduction to Data for Several Metals," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Part II, E. D. Palik, ed., (Academic Press, NY, 1985).
  22. M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  23. Calculations are performed with ab initio norm-conserving pseudopotentials within standard Density Functional Theory. Optical functions are calculated in Random Phase Approximation using the lattice constant of 4.023 ?? generated within Local Density Approximation.
  24. K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).
  25. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, "Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

A. Boltasseva, S. Bozhevolnyi, T. Søndergaard, T. Nikolajsen, and K. Leosson, "Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 4237-4243 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, "Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

M. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, "Localized surface plasmon singularities in amplifying media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040-5042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Avrutsky, "Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain," Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416 (2004).

M. P. Nezhad, K. Tetz and Y. Fainman, "Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 4072-4079 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, "Localization and Waveguiding of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Random Nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

C. Sirtori, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Long-wavelength (? ~ 8-11.5 µm) semiconductor lasers with waveguides based on surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 23, 1366-1368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102-1104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

A. N. Sudarkin and P. A. Demkovich, "Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on the boundary of a metal with an amplifying medium," Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 764-766 (1989).

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Adegoke, J.

Adegoke, J. A.

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrutsky, I.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, "Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Avrutsky, "Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain," Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416 (2004).

Bahoura, M.

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, "Localization and Waveguiding of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Random Nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

Cho, A. Y.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Demkovich, P. A.

A. N. Sudarkin and P. A. Demkovich, "Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on the boundary of a metal with an amplifying medium," Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 764-766 (1989).

Drachev, V. P.

Elser, J.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, "Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Wangberg, J. Elser, E. E. Narimanov, and V. A. Podolskiy, "Nonmagnetic nanocomposites for optical and infrared negative-refractive-index media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 498-505 (2006).

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102-1104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, "Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esser, N.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Fainman, Y.

Faist, J.

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

Grafstroem, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, "Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hare, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, T.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Hoffmann, S. V.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Hofmann, Ph.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Hutchinson, A. L.

Ibanescu, M.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Karalis, A.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

T. A. Klar; A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar; A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koe, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, "Localized surface plasmon singularities in amplifying media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040-5042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

A. Boltasseva, S. Bozhevolnyi, T. Søndergaard, T. Nikolajsen, and K. Leosson, "Compact Z-add-drop wavelength filters for long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 4237-4243 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, "Localization and Waveguiding of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Random Nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lidorikis, E.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayy, M.

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

Nezhad, M. P.

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, "Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Science 275, 1102-1104 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolajsen, T.

Noginov, M. A.

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

Requicha, A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynolds, K.

Richter, W.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Ritzo, B. A.

Sahm, J.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Salakhutdinov, I.

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, "Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, "Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Sirtori, C.

Sivco, D. L.

Small, C. E.

Solja, M.

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Søndergaard, T.

Stahrenberg, K.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

Stockman, M.

M. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudarkin, A. N.

A. N. Sudarkin and P. A. Demkovich, "Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on the boundary of a metal with an amplifying medium," Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 34, 764-766 (1989).

Tetz, K.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, "Localization and Waveguiding of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Random Nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wangberg, R.

Zhu, G.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Elser, V. A. Podolskiy, I. Salakhutdinov, and I. Avrutsky, "Nonlocal effects in effective-medium response of nanolayered metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, "Localized surface plasmon singularities in amplifying media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5040-5042 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. A. Klar; A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Hare, B. E. Koe and A. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

I. Avrutsky, "Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain," Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416 (2004).

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, N. Esser, J. Sahm, W. Richter, S. V. Hoffmann, and Ph. Hofmann. "Surface state contrubution of the optical anisotropy of Ag (110) surface: a reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy and photoemission study," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10207 (1998).

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and M. Solja, "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in Tapered Plasmonic Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667-1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, "Localization and Waveguiding of Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Random Nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, "Stimulated emission of surface plasmons at the interface between a silver film and an optically pumped dye solution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Science (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

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Other (4)

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M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Calculations are performed with ab initio norm-conserving pseudopotentials within standard Density Functional Theory. Optical functions are calculated in Random Phase Approximation using the lattice constant of 4.023 ?? generated within Local Density Approximation.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Imaginary part of the dielectric constant of silver e” calculated (1) according to the Drude model with plasma frequency ωp =9.1 eV and loss parameter Γ=0.021 eV; (2) from the first principles for bulk silver; (3–6) for the (1,1,1) surface of silver slabs consisting of 7, 10, 13, and 16 monolayers. Trace 7 - experimental data [20].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup: excitation of SPPs in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) geometry.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular dependence of the reflectivity R(θ) recorded in the setup of Fig. 3, with the concentration of the R6G dye equal to 0 g/l (squares) and 30 g/l (circles). With the addition of dye, the width of the reflectivity profile decreased and the position of its minimum shifted.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Imaginary part ε 2” of the dielectric constant of the PMMA/R6G film as a function of concentration of R6G, N. Diamonds: data calculated from the absorption measurements. Solid line: data points e 2” fitted with a second order polynomial. Dotted line has the slope equal to h=2. Circles: the values e 2” used at the fitting of the R(θ) profiles in glass/silver/polymer structures. Inset: Absorption spectrum of PMMA film doped with R6G; trace 1 - N=100 g/l; trace 2 - N=5 g/l.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Real part of the dielectric constant ε1 ’ of PMMA/R6G as a function of R6G concentration N.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Obtained from the fitting of R(θ) real (a) and imaginary (b) parts of the dielectric constant of silver, ε1 , as a function of the R6G concentration N. Solid lines – interpolations with second order polynomials.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SPP propagation length L as a function of dye concentration N. Solid squares (triangles) – calculations done for real experimental parameters at d 1=80 nm (40 nm); Open squares (triangles) – calculations done for the hypothetic case of the absence of dye absorption, e 2 ”=0, at d 1=80 nm (40 nm). Solid circles – inverse width of the reflectivity profile R(θ). All data sets are normalized to unity at N=0.

Equations (2)

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R = r 01 p + r 12 p exp ( 2 i k z 1 d ) 1 + r 01 p r 12 p exp ( 2 i k z 1 d ) 2 ,
L = [ 2 ( γ i + γ r ) ] 1 ,

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