Abstract

We report on photodarkening (PD) investigations at Yb doped fibers with specific variation of the concentrations of the codopants aluminum and phosphorus, measured during cladding pumping at 915 nm. A core composition with equal content of Al and P is most promising to achieve Yb fibers with low PD, high laser efficiency and low numerical aperture of the laser core despite of high codoping. A laser output power of more than 100 W was demonstrated on such a fiber with a slope efficiency of 72%. The correlation of the PD loss with the NIR-excited cooperative luminescence encourages the supposition that cooperative energy transfer from excited Yb3+ ions to the atomic defect precursors in the core glass enables the formation of color centers in the pump-induced PD process.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. Kliner, and J. Koplow, "Photodarkening Measurements in Large-Mode-Area Fibers," Proc. SPIE 6453, 64531E-1-11 (2007).
  2. A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, "Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers," in Conf. Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC 2007, CJ3-1-THU (2007).
  3. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, "Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power," Opt. Express 15, 14838-14843 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, S. K. T. Tammela, K. Ylä-Jarkko, A. Salokatve, and S. Honkanen, "Mode-induced transverse photodarkening loss variations in large-mode-area ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Express 16, 10633-10640 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Aberg, "Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation," Opt. Lett. 32, 3352-3354 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Engholm and L. Norin, "Preventing photodarkening in ytterbium-doped high power fiber lasers; correlation to the UV-transparency of the core glass," Opt. Express 16, 1260-1268 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Yoo, C. Basu, A. J. Boland, C. Sones, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, and D. Payne, "Photodarkening in Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers induced by 488 nm irradiation," Opt. Lett. 32, 1626-1628 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. D. Dragic, C. G. Carlson, and A. Croteau, "Characterization of defect luminescence in Yb doped silica fibers: part I: NBOHC," Opt. Express 16, 4688-4697 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, "Population Inversion Factor Dependence of Photodarkening of Yb-doped Fibers and its Suppression by Highly Aluminium Doping," in OFC/ NFOE Conference on CD-ROM (Opt. Society of America, Washington, DC, 2006), OThC5 (2006).
  10. S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).
  11. M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).
  12. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and A. Schwuchow, "Properties of Yb-doped materials for solid and microstructured high power fiber lasers", in Proceedings of ICMAT 2007 Symposium on Microstructured and Nanostructured Optical Fibers, Singapore, 1-6 July, 2007.
  14. S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, and J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers - diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 13 (2007).
  15. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Aberg, D.

Basu, C.

Boland, A. J.

Bufetov, I. A.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Carlson, C. G.

Croteau, A.

Dellith, J.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, and J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers - diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 13 (2007).

Dianov, E. M.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Dragic, P. D.

Engholm, M.

Grimm, S.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

Jetschke, S.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, "Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power," Opt. Express 15, 14838-14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, and J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers - diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 13 (2007).

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, "Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power," Opt. Express 15, 14838-14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, B.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kratsov, K. S.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Melkumov, M. A.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Nilsson, J.

Norin, L.

Payne, D.

Reichel, V.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Röpke, U.

Sahu, J. K.

Salokatve, A.

Scheffel, A.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

Schwuchow, A.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, and J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers - diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 13 (2007).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, A. V.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Söderlund, M. J.

Sones, C.

Tammela, S. K. T.

Unger, S.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, and J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers - diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 13 (2007).

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, "Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power," Opt. Express 15, 14838-14843 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ylä-Jarkko, K.

Yoo, S.

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Grimm, and V. Reichel, "Materials for high-power fiber lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2399-2403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, and J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers - diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 13 (2007).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, "Dopant interactions in high-power laser fibers," Proc. SPIE 5723, 261-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, V. Reichel, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, "Optical properties of Yb-doped laser fibers in dependence on codopants and preparation conditions," Proc. SPIE 6890, 16 (2008).

Quantum Electron.

M. A. Melkumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kratsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, "Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3," Quantum Electron. 34, 843-848 (2004).

Other

J. Koponen, M. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, D. Kliner, and J. Koplow, "Photodarkening Measurements in Large-Mode-Area Fibers," Proc. SPIE 6453, 64531E-1-11 (2007).

A. V. Shubin, M. V. Yashkov, M. A. Melkumov, S. A. Smirnow, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, "Photodarkening of aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate Yb-doped fibers," in Conf. Digest of CLEO Europe-EQEC 2007, CJ3-1-THU (2007).

T. Kitabayashi, M. Ikeda, M. Nakai, T. Sakai, K. Himeno, and K. Ohashi, "Population Inversion Factor Dependence of Photodarkening of Yb-doped Fibers and its Suppression by Highly Aluminium Doping," in OFC/ NFOE Conference on CD-ROM (Opt. Society of America, Washington, DC, 2006), OThC5 (2006).

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, and A. Schwuchow, "Properties of Yb-doped materials for solid and microstructured high power fiber lasers", in Proceedings of ICMAT 2007 Symposium on Microstructured and Nanostructured Optical Fibers, Singapore, 1-6 July, 2007.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index profiles of the samples from series #Al (a) and series #P (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured spectra of the NIR-excited cooperative luminescence of the fibers from series #Al (a) and series #P (b).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal development of the photodarkening loss of the fibers from series #Al (a) at [Yb*] ≈ 1.1· 1026 m-3 and series #P (b) at [Yb*] ≈ 1.3· 1026 m-3. The stretched exponential functions determined by the fitting procedure are shown as thin dashed lines.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photodarkening loss αeq (a) and rate constant τ-1 (b) in dependence on the aluminum content (fiber series #Al, [Yb*] ≈ 1.1· 1026 m-3).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectra of the Yb3+ absorption cross section for different codoping (a) and laser characteristics of the fiber #4P (b).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fiber series #Al (0.5 mol% P2O5, variation of the Al content): sample number, ytterbium content, aluminum content, fiber background loss αb at 1200 and 633 nm, respectively, and determined photodarkening parameters: equilibrium loss αeq and time constant τ.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Fiber series #P (about 4.5 mol% Al2O3, variation of the P content): sample number, ytterbium content, phosphorus content, fiber background loss αb at 1200 and 633 nm, respectively, and determined photodarkening parameters: equilibrium loss αeq and time constant τ.

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