Abstract

In this study we apply a micro-prism array technique to enable a single lens CCD to capture a stereo image for the simulation of double lens vision. A micro-prism array plate serves as the basis for design, which also improves the lightweight and portability of the overall system in addition to lowering the mass-production costs. Most important of all, this design possesses the characteristics of integration compatibility between generalpurpose and video camera.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Parker, "Binocular depth perception and the cerebral cortex," Nat. Rev. Neuroscience 8, 379-391 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, "Methods for Displaying Three-Dimensional Images," Proc. of IEEE 94,502-523 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.Y. Park, N. Lee, and S. Kim, "Stereoscopic imaging camera with simultaneous vergence and focus control," Opt. Eng. 43, 3130-3137 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. P. Pachidis and J. N. Lygouras, "Pseudo-Stereo Vision System: A Detailed Study," J. of Intel. Rob. Sys. 42, 135-167 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Gluckman and S. K. Nayar, "Rectified Catadioptric Stereo Sensors," in IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 224-236 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhu, Y. Li, and S. Ye, "Design and calibration of a single-camera-based stereo vision sensor," Opt. Eng. 45, 083001 1-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Xiao and K. B. Lim, "A prism-based single-lens stereovision system: From trinocular to multi-ocular," Image Vis. Comput. (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. H. Lee and I. S. Kweon, "A Novel Stereo Camera System by a Biprism," IEEE Trans. Robotics Auto. 16, 528-541 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. http://www.renoirpuzzle.com.twenewsepaper20050428.html.
  13. E. Hecht, Optics 4thed., (Addison Wesley, 2002).

2007

A. J. Parker, "Binocular depth perception and the cerebral cortex," Nat. Rev. Neuroscience 8, 379-391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, "Methods for Displaying Three-Dimensional Images," Proc. of IEEE 94,502-523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Y. Li, and S. Ye, "Design and calibration of a single-camera-based stereo vision sensor," Opt. Eng. 45, 083001 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Pachidis and J. N. Lygouras, "Pseudo-Stereo Vision System: A Detailed Study," J. of Intel. Rob. Sys. 42, 135-167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S.Y. Park, N. Lee, and S. Kim, "Stereoscopic imaging camera with simultaneous vergence and focus control," Opt. Eng. 43, 3130-3137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gluckman and S. K. Nayar, "Rectified Catadioptric Stereo Sensors," in IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 224-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. H. Lee and I. S. Kweon, "A Novel Stereo Camera System by a Biprism," IEEE Trans. Robotics Auto. 16, 528-541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gluckman, J.

J. Gluckman and S. K. Nayar, "Rectified Catadioptric Stereo Sensors," in IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 224-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Go, T.

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hatamura, Y.

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hermanne, A.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, "Methods for Displaying Three-Dimensional Images," Proc. of IEEE 94,502-523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S.Y. Park, N. Lee, and S. Kim, "Stereoscopic imaging camera with simultaneous vergence and focus control," Opt. Eng. 43, 3130-3137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwack, K. D.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, "Methods for Displaying Three-Dimensional Images," Proc. of IEEE 94,502-523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kweon, I. S.

D. H. Lee and I. S. Kweon, "A Novel Stereo Camera System by a Biprism," IEEE Trans. Robotics Auto. 16, 528-541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, J.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. H.

D. H. Lee and I. S. Kweon, "A Novel Stereo Camera System by a Biprism," IEEE Trans. Robotics Auto. 16, 528-541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N.

S.Y. Park, N. Lee, and S. Kim, "Stereoscopic imaging camera with simultaneous vergence and focus control," Opt. Eng. 43, 3130-3137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, and S. Ye, "Design and calibration of a single-camera-based stereo vision sensor," Opt. Eng. 45, 083001 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lygouras, J. N.

T. P. Pachidis and J. N. Lygouras, "Pseudo-Stereo Vision System: A Detailed Study," J. of Intel. Rob. Sys. 42, 135-167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, K.

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, M.

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nayar, S. K.

J. Gluckman and S. K. Nayar, "Rectified Catadioptric Stereo Sensors," in IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 224-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ottevaere, H.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pachidis, T. P.

T. P. Pachidis and J. N. Lygouras, "Pseudo-Stereo Vision System: A Detailed Study," J. of Intel. Rob. Sys. 42, 135-167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.Y.

S.Y. Park, N. Lee, and S. Kim, "Stereoscopic imaging camera with simultaneous vergence and focus control," Opt. Eng. 43, 3130-3137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. J.

A. J. Parker, "Binocular depth perception and the cerebral cortex," Nat. Rev. Neuroscience 8, 379-391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwider, J.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. Y.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, "Methods for Displaying Three-Dimensional Images," Proc. of IEEE 94,502-523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Volckaerts, B.

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C.

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, and S. Ye, "Design and calibration of a single-camera-based stereo vision sensor," Opt. Eng. 45, 083001 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, and S. Ye, "Design and calibration of a single-camera-based stereo vision sensor," Opt. Eng. 45, 083001 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Robotics Auto.

D. H. Lee and I. S. Kweon, "A Novel Stereo Camera System by a Biprism," IEEE Trans. Robotics Auto. 16, 528-541 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. of Intel. Rob. Sys.

T. P. Pachidis and J. N. Lygouras, "Pseudo-Stereo Vision System: A Detailed Study," J. of Intel. Rob. Sys. 42, 135-167 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, "Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 111-117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ottevaere, B. Volckaerts, J. Lamprecht, J. Schwider, A. Hermanne, I. Veretennicoff, and H. Thienpont, "Two-dimensional plastic microlens arrays by deep lithography with protons: fabrication and characterization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, 22-28 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microsystem Technol.

C.  Yan, M.  Nakao, T.  Go, K.  Matsumoto, and Y.  Hatamura, "Injection molding for microstructures controlling mold-core extrusion and cavity heat-flux," Microsystem Technol. 9, 188-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Neuroscience

A. J. Parker, "Binocular depth perception and the cerebral cortex," Nat. Rev. Neuroscience 8, 379-391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. Zhu, Y. Li, and S. Ye, "Design and calibration of a single-camera-based stereo vision sensor," Opt. Eng. 45, 083001 1-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.Y. Park, N. Lee, and S. Kim, "Stereoscopic imaging camera with simultaneous vergence and focus control," Opt. Eng. 43, 3130-3137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Anal. Machine Intell.

J. Gluckman and S. K. Nayar, "Rectified Catadioptric Stereo Sensors," in IEEE Trans.Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 24, 224-236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. of IEEE

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, "Methods for Displaying Three-Dimensional Images," Proc. of IEEE 94,502-523 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Xiao and K. B. Lim, "A prism-based single-lens stereovision system: From trinocular to multi-ocular," Image Vis. Comput. (2007).
[CrossRef]

http://www.renoirpuzzle.com.twenewsepaper20050428.html.

E. Hecht, Optics 4thed., (Addison Wesley, 2002).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of the system’s reference architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Geometry of the micro-prism and image plane frame.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Infinite stereo-system for the micro-prism.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Geometry of a prism.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Horizontal FOV of the Prism.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diagram of the geometric relationship of the light ray with an incident angle of θ1 against the upper portion of the prism array plate.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diagram of the geometric relationship of the light ray with an incident angle of θ1 against the lower portion of the prism array plate.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Lens layout after optimization.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Image quality of the lens: (a) MTF; (b) through focus MTF; (c) field curvature and distortion; (d) relative illumination.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

micro-prism plate.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Object light from infinity enters the prism lens with: (a) system light trace diagram; (b) photo image in receptive area.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Light trace diagram: (a) above the micro-prism array; (b) below the micro-prism array.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Simulated images: (a) images only passing through the lens set; (b) images passing through micro-prism array and lens set.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The study used CCD camera specifications

Tables Icon

Table 2. lens data after optimization

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ = ( θ 1 θ 1 ) + ( θ 2 θ 2 ) = α + θ 2 θ 1
α = θ 1 θ 2
sin θ 1 = sin θ 1 n   , sin θ 2 = n sin θ 2
θ 2 = sin 1 ( ( n 2 sin 2 θ 1 ) 1 2 · sin α cos α sin θ 1 )
δ = α sin 1 ( ( n 2 sin 2 θ 1 ) 1 2 · sin α cos α sin θ 1 ) θ 1
FOV = 2 * ( tan 1 ( h 2 + ν 2 f ) )
θ w = 2 * tan 1 h f   ,   θ h = 2 * tan 1 ν f

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