Abstract

White top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs) with down-conversion phosphors are investigated from theory and experiment. The theoretical simulation was described by combining the microcavity model with the down-conversion model. A White TEOLED by the combination of a blue TEOLED with organic down-conversion phosphor 3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-1-pheny1prop-2-en-1-one was fabricated to validate the simulated results. It is shown that this approach permits the generation of white light in TEOLEDs. The efficiency of the white TEOLED is twice over the corresponding blue TEOLED. The feasible methods to improve the performance of such white TEOLEDs are discussed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, "White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer," Thin Solid Films 516, 3590-3594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, "High-efficiency top-emissive white-light-emitting organic electrophosphorescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Analytical calculation of the extraction efficiency of microcavity light-emitting diodes for display and fiber coupling applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8, 207-218 (2002)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1981 (1)

Bortscheller, J.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V. E.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, "High-efficiency top-emissive white-light-emitting organic electrophosphorescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D. F.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Z. R.

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. F.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. W.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

Ilegems, M.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Analytical calculation of the extraction efficiency of microcavity light-emitting diodes for display and fiber coupling applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8, 207-218 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Jeong, C. H.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, "White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer," Thin Solid Films 516, 3590-3594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, "High-efficiency top-emissive white-light-emitting organic electrophosphorescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, K.

C. Li, B. Wei, K. Kawaguchi, T. Saito, H. Kimura, Y. Taniguchi, and M. Ichikawa, "Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with color conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7487-7489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Li, M. Ichikawa, B. Wei, Y. Taniguchi, H. Kimura, K. Kawaguchi, and K. Sakurai, "A highly color-stability white organic light-emitting diode by color conversion within hole injection layer," Opt. Express 15, 608-615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, "White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer," Thin Solid Films 516, 3590-3594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, B. F.

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Li, W. L.

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. T.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, "White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer," Thin Solid Films 516, 3590-3594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nealon, W.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

Royo, P.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Analytical calculation of the extraction efficiency of microcavity light-emitting diodes for display and fiber coupling applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8, 207-218 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

C. Li, H. Kimura, T. Saito, K. Sakurai, B. Wei, M. Ichikawa, and Y. Taniguchi, "Study of color-conversion-materials in chromatic-stability white organic light-emitting diodes," Opt. Express 15, 14422-14430 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Li, B. Wei, K. Kawaguchi, T. Saito, H. Kimura, Y. Taniguchi, and M. Ichikawa, "Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with color conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7487-7489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, K.

Shiang, J.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R. P.

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Analytical calculation of the extraction efficiency of microcavity light-emitting diodes for display and fiber coupling applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8, 207-218 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. R.

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, "High-efficiency top-emissive white-light-emitting organic electrophosphorescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Turner, L.

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, B.

Yeom, G. Y.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, "White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer," Thin Solid Films 516, 3590-3594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. M.

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Kanno, Y. R. Sun, and S. R. Forrest, "High-efficiency top-emissive white-light-emitting organic electrophosphorescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 263502 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Hsu, C. C. Lee, S. W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, "Highly efficient top-emitting white organic electroluminescent devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, "Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3470-3472 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, "Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Analytical calculation of the extraction efficiency of microcavity light-emitting diodes for display and fiber coupling applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 8, 207-218 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

L. M. Zhang, B. Li, B. F. Lei, Z. R. Hong, and W. L. Li, "A triphenylamine derivative as an efficient organic light color-conversion material for white LEDs," J. Lumin. 128, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Li, B. Wei, K. Kawaguchi, T. Saito, H. Kimura, Y. Taniguchi, and M. Ichikawa, "Low-voltage driving three-peak white organic light emitting diodes with color conversion hole injection layer based on host-guest energy transfer," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 7487-7489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

A. Duggal, J. Shiang, D. Foust, L. Turner, W. Nealon, and J. Bortscheller, "Large-Area White OLEDs," SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 36, 28-31 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, "White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using one-emissive layer of the DCJTB doped DPVBi layer," Thin Solid Films 516, 3590-3594 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The schematic device structure of the white TEOLED based on down-conversion system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The absorption, excitation and emission spectra of DPPO. Inset is the optical constants and the chemical structure of DPPO.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The normalized measured and simulated EL spectra of the white TEOLED at viewing angle of 0°, 30°, and 60° and (b) the transmission spectra of the Al/Ag/DPPO multilayer film with different incidence angles (incident medium: DPVBi).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The voltage-luminance-efficiency characteristics of the device.

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