Abstract

A quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol based on a differential-phase-shift scheme is proposed, which quantum mechanically provides a full secret key to one party and partial keys to two other parties. A weak coherent pulse train is utilized instead of individual photons as in conventional schemes. Compared with previous QSS protocols, the present one features a simple setup, is suitable for fiber transmission, and offers the possibility for a high key creation rate. An experiment is also carried out to demonstrate the operation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 888-896 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Xiao, G. Long, F. Deng, and J. Pan, "Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes," Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. K. Singh and R. Srikanth, "Generalized quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 012328 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, "Multiparty quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimension time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Chen, G. Wu, Y. Li, E. Wu, and H. Zeng, "Active polarization in optical fibers suitable for quantum key distribution," Opt. Express 15, 17928-17936 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. B. Xavier, G. Vilela de Faria, G. P. Temporão, and J. P. von der Weid, "Full polarization control for fiber optical quantum communication systems using polarization encoding," Opt. Express 16, 1867-1873 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-key reconciliation by public discussion in advances," in Cryptography-EUROCRYPT???93, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 765, T. Helleseth, (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1994), pp. 410-423.
  16. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Honjo, K. Inoue and H. Takahashi, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Lett. 29, 2797-2799 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimension time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 888-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. K. Singh and R. Srikanth, "Generalized quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 012328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, "Multiparty quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berthiaume, A.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bourennane, M.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bužek, V.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Crepeau, C.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deng, F.

L. Xiao, G. Long, F. Deng, and J. Pan, "Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes," Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hillery, M.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

Imoto, N.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

K. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 888-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimension time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue and H. Takahashi, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Opt. Lett. 29, 2797-2799 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, A.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koashi, M.

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Long, G.

L. Xiao, G. Long, F. Deng, and J. Pan, "Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes," Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lütkenhaus, N.

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Man, Z.

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, "Multiparty quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, U. M.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J.

L. Xiao, G. Long, F. Deng, and J. Pan, "Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes," Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, C.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S. K.

S. K. Singh and R. Srikanth, "Generalized quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 012328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Srikanth, R.

S. K. Singh and R. Srikanth, "Generalized quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 012328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

Takesue, H.

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimension time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Temporão, G. P.

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trojek, P.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vilela de Faria, G.

von der Weid, J. P.

Waks, E.

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weinfurter, H.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Xavier, G. B.

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, G. Long, F. Deng, and J. Pan, "Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes," Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, "Multiparty quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zukowski, M.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Inoue, "Quantum key distribution technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 888-896 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Info. Theory (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, and U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Info. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (9)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, "Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimension time-bin entanglement," Phys. Rev. A 74, 012315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Lütkenhaus, "Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. A 61, 052304 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, E. Waks, and Y. Yamamoto, "Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 022317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, H. Takesue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution against individual attacks," Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Karlsson, M. Koashi, and N. Imoto, "Quantum entanglement for secret sharing and secret splitting," Phys. Rev. A 59, 162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Xiao, G. Long, F. Deng, and J. Pan, "Efficient multiparty quantum-secret-sharing schemes," Phys. Rev. A 69, 052307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Singh and R. Srikanth, "Generalized quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 012328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, "Multiparty quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 71, 044301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, "Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-key reconciliation by public discussion in advances," in Cryptography-EUROCRYPT???93, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 765, T. Helleseth, (Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1994), pp. 410-423.

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