Abstract

Fueled by their high third-order nonlinearity and nonlinear saturable absorption, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are expected to become an integral part of next-generation photonic devices such as all-optical switches and passive mode-locked lasers. However, in order to fulfill this expectation it is necessary to identify a suitable platform that allows the efficient use of the optical properties of CNT. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel device consisting of an optofluidic device filled with a dispersion of CNT. By fabricating a microchannel through the core of a conventional fiber and filling it with a homogeneous solution of CNTs on Dimethylformamide (DMF), a compact, all-fiber saturable absorber is realized. The fabrication of the micro-fluidic channel is a two-step process that involves femtosecond laser micro-fabrication and chemical etching of the laser-modified regions. All-fiber high-energy, passive mode-locked lasing is demonstrated with an output power of 13.5 dBm. The key characteristics of the device are compactness and robustness against optical, mechanical and thermal damage.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka and M. Jablonski, "Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski and S. Y. Set, "Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 29, 1581-1583 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y-W Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, "Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube-Poly-methyl-methacrylate Composites for Nonlinear Photonic Devices," Opt. Express 16, 11337-11343 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y-W Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, "Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 148-150 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y-W. Song, K. Morimune, S.Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, "Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, "Carbon Nanotube-Polyimide Saturable Absorbing Waveguide Made by Simple Photolithography," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.
  9. Y-W Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, "Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386, (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2559-2561 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Marcinkevicius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, J. Nishii, "Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica," Opt. Lett. 26, 277-279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. RR Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond Laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics,  2, 219-225 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Zhou, Y. Lai, X. Chen, K. Sugden, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "A refractometer based on a micro-slot in a fiber Bragg grating formed by chemically assisted femtosecond laser processing," Opt. Express 15, 15848-15853 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y-W Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, "Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube-Poly-methyl-methacrylate Composites for Nonlinear Photonic Devices," Opt. Express 16, 11337-11343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y-W Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, "Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008)
[CrossRef]

RR Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond Laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics,  2, 219-225 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

K. Zhou, Y. Lai, X. Chen, K. Sugden, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "A refractometer based on a micro-slot in a fiber Bragg grating formed by chemically assisted femtosecond laser processing," Opt. Express 15, 15848-15853 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y-W Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, "Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 148-150 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Y-W. Song, K. Morimune, S.Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, "Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lai, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Microchannels in conventional single-mode fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2559-2561 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, RR

RR Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond Laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics,  2, 219-225 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Goh, C. S.

Hirao, K.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Ishigure, T.

Jablonski, M.

Juodkazis, S.

Kataura, H.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Martinez, A.

Martinez Vazquez, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

RR Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond Laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics,  2, 219-225 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morimune, K.

Y-W. Song, K. Morimune, S.Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, "Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Nishii, J.

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramponi, R.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Set, S. Y.

Set, S.Y.

Y-W. Song, K. Morimune, S.Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, "Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Song, Y-W

Song, Y-W.

Y-W. Song, K. Morimune, S.Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, "Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

Suzuki, S.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka and M. Jablonski, "Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

Umezu, I.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, C.

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoko, T.

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and X.-C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Y-W. Song, K. Morimune, S.Y. Set, and S. Yamashita, "Polarization insensitive all-fiber mode-lockers functioned by carbon nanotubes deposited onto tapered fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 021101 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Y-W Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, "Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021115 (2008)
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. Martinez Vazquez, R. Ramponi and G. Cerullo, "Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka and M. Jablonski, "Ultrafast Fiber Pulsed Lasers Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jpn J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kondo, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and T. Yoko, "Three-dimensional microdrilling of glass by multiphoton process and chemical etching," Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1146-L1148 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

RR Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond Laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics,  2, 219-225 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, and C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Synth. Met. (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synth. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Oomuro, R. Kaji, T. Itatani, H. Ishii, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, M. Yamashita, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, "Carbon Nanotube-Polyimide Saturable Absorbing Waveguide Made by Simple Photolithography," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CThV1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Set-up for the fabrication of the microfluidic channel. (b) Schematic of the 2µm microfluidic channel filled with a CNT solution. (b) Inset: Description of method to disperse CNT in DMF.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Absorption spectra of the CNT dispersed in DMF, the dashed line indicates the expected non-saturable absorption [3], dotted line indicates the wavelength at which the laser here implemented operates. (b) Raman spectra from the CNT-filled microchannel indicating the presence of CNTs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Mode-locked ring-cavity fiber laser utilizing a CNT-filled microfluidic channel. Characterization of the passively mode-locked laser based on a CNT-filled microfluidic device (b) Optical spectrum, (c) pulse train, (d) autocorrelator trace.

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