Abstract

We designed and fabricated silicon-on-insulator based Michelson interferometer (MI) thermo-optical switches with deep etched trenches for heat-isolation. Switch power was reduced ~20% for the switch with deep etched trenches, and the MI saved ~50% power than that of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. 10.6 mW switch power, ~42 μs switch time for the MI with deep trenches, 13.14 mW switch power and ~34 μs switch time for the MI without deep trenches were achieved.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Soref, "The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, "Silicon Photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,10109-10114 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, "Maximizing the Thermo-Optic Tuning Range of Silicon Photonic Structures," Optical Switch 2007 IEEE, (San Francisco, 2007), pp.153-154.
  7. M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-Power Thermooptical Tuning of SOI Resonator Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, and W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry-Perot microcavities," Opt. Express 15,7557-7563 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S.-L. Tsao and P.-C. Peng, "An SOI Michelson Interferometer Sensor with Waveguide Bragg Reflective Gratings for temperature monitoring," Microwave Opt. Technol. Let. 30321-322 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Pruessner, T. H. Stievater, M. S. Ferraro, and W. S. Rabinovich, "Thermo-optic tuning and switching in SOI waveguide Fabry-Perot microcavities," Opt. Express 15,7557-7563 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 14, 3853-3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, "Silicon Photonics," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-Power Thermooptical Tuning of SOI Resonator Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, "The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,10109-10114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S.-L. Tsao and P.-C. Peng, "An SOI Michelson Interferometer Sensor with Waveguide Bragg Reflective Gratings for temperature monitoring," Microwave Opt. Technol. Let. 30321-322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, T.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,10109-10114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-Power Thermooptical Tuning of SOI Resonator Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,10109-10114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-Power Thermooptical Tuning of SOI Resonator Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

Espinol, R. L.

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Ferraro, M. S.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Gu, L.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harjanne, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heimala, P.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, S.

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,10109-10114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

James, M.-C.

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kapulainen, M.

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-Power Thermooptical Tuning of SOI Resonator Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, P.-C.

S.-L. Tsao and P.-C. Peng, "An SOI Michelson Interferometer Sensor with Waveguide Bragg Reflective Gratings for temperature monitoring," Microwave Opt. Technol. Let. 30321-322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pruessner, M. W.

Rabinovich, W. S.

Schares, L.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, "The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stievater, T. H.

Tsai, M.-C.

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S.-L.

S.-L. Tsao and P.-C. Peng, "An SOI Michelson Interferometer Sensor with Waveguide Bragg Reflective Gratings for temperature monitoring," Microwave Opt. Technol. Let. 30321-322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Yamada, H.

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida and Y. Arakawa, "Compact 1 x N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides," Opt. Express 13,10109-10114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, T.

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, "The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

R. L. Espinol, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Fast and Low-Power Thermooptic Switch on Thin Silicon-on-Insulator,"IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366-1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Harjanne, M. Kapulainen, T. Aalto, and P. Heimala, "Sub-?s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2039-2041 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond Submilliwatt Silicon-on-Insulator Thermooptic Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Chu, H. Yamada, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Thermooptic Switch Based on Photonic-Crystal Line-Defect Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2083-2085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Gu, W. Jiang, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, " Thermooptically Tuned Photonic Crystal Waveguide Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Interferometers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 342-344 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-Power Thermooptical Tuning of SOI Resonator Switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Let. (1)

S.-L. Tsao and P.-C. Peng, "An SOI Michelson Interferometer Sensor with Waveguide Bragg Reflective Gratings for temperature monitoring," Microwave Opt. Technol. Let. 30321-322 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (1)

F. Gan, T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, H. I. Smith, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, "Maximizing the Thermo-Optic Tuning Range of Silicon Photonic Structures," Optical Switch 2007 IEEE, (San Francisco, 2007), pp.153-154.

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