Abstract

In this paper we report the development of nanosecond-pulsed fiber laser technology for the next generation EUV lithography sources. The demonstrated fiber laser system incorporates large core fibers and arbitrary optical waveform generation, which enables achieving optimum intensities and other critical beam characteristics on a laser-plasma target. Experiment demonstrates efficient EUV generation with conversion efficiency of up to 2.07% for in-band 13.5-nm radiation using mass-limited Sn-doped droplet targets. This result opens a new technological path towards fiber laser based high power EUV sources for high-throughput lithography steppers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).
  6. A. G. Mordovanakis, K. -C. Hou, Y. -C. Chang, M. -Y. Cheng, J. Nees, B. Hou, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, A. Galvanauskas, and B. Lafontaine, "Demonstration of fiber-laser-produced plasma source and application to efficient extreme UV light generation," Opt. Lett. 31, 2517-2519 (2006)
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  7. S. A. George, W. T. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. T. Bernath, C. -S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, and M. C. Richardson, "Comparative extreme ultraviolet emission measurements for lithium and tin laser plasmas," Opt. Lett. 32, 997-999 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
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  12. T. Okuno, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, Y. Tao, K. Nagai, Q. Gu, N. Ueda, T. Ando, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, A. Sunahara, H. Furukawa and A. Sasaki, "Low-density tin targets for efficient extreme ultraviolet light emission from laser-produced plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161501 (2006)
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  17. S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Galvanauskas, "Mode-scalable fiber-based chirped pulse amplification systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 504-517 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Dunne, G. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Reilly, "Prepulse-enhanced narrow bandwidth soft x-ray emission from a low debris, subnanosecond, laser plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 34-36 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

S. A. George, W. T. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. T. Bernath, C. -S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, and M. C. Richardson, "Comparative extreme ultraviolet emission measurements for lithium and tin laser plasmas," Opt. Lett. 32, 997-999 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

T. Okuno, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, Y. Tao, K. Nagai, Q. Gu, N. Ueda, T. Ando, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, A. Sunahara, H. Furukawa and A. Sasaki, "Low-density tin targets for efficient extreme ultraviolet light emission from laser-produced plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161501 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Y. Tao, S. S. Harilal, M. S. Tillack, K. L. Sequoia, B. O’Shay, and F. Najmabadi, "Effect of focal spot size on in-band 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-produced Sn plasma," Opt. Lett. 31, 2492-2494 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Mordovanakis, K. -C. Hou, Y. -C. Chang, M. -Y. Cheng, J. Nees, B. Hou, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, A. Galvanauskas, and B. Lafontaine, "Demonstration of fiber-laser-produced plasma source and application to efficient extreme UV light generation," Opt. Lett. 31, 2517-2519 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita,  et al, "High conversion efficiency microscopic tin-doped droplet target laser-plasma source for EUVL," Proc. of SPIE 5751, 279-292 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

E. A. Gibson, et al., "Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with Quasi-Phase Matching," Science 302, 95-98 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Galvanauskas, "Mode-scalable fiber-based chirped pulse amplification systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 504-517 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Dunne, G. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Reilly, "Prepulse-enhanced narrow bandwidth soft x-ray emission from a low debris, subnanosecond, laser plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 34-36 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. H. Stulen, "13-nm Extereme Ultraviolet Lithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 970-975 (1995)
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Akinaga, K.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ando, T.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Bernath, R. T.

Böwering, N. R.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Brandt, D. C.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Bykanov, A. N.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Cerjan, C.

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. -C.

Cheng, M. -Y.

Cheng, M.-Y.

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, J.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Dunne, P.

P. Dunne, G. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Reilly, "Prepulse-enhanced narrow bandwidth soft x-ray emission from a low debris, subnanosecond, laser plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 34-36 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Ershov, A. I.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Farroni, J.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fomenkov, I. V.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Fujioka, S.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

T. Okuno, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, Y. Tao, K. Nagai, Q. Gu, N. Ueda, T. Ando, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, A. Sunahara, H. Furukawa and A. Sasaki, "Low-density tin targets for efficient extreme ultraviolet light emission from laser-produced plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161501 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Gabel, K.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Galvanauskas, A.

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
[CrossRef]

A. G. Mordovanakis, K. -C. Hou, Y. -C. Chang, M. -Y. Cheng, J. Nees, B. Hou, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, A. Galvanauskas, and B. Lafontaine, "Demonstration of fiber-laser-produced plasma source and application to efficient extreme UV light generation," Opt. Lett. 31, 2517-2519 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Galvanauskas, "Mode-scalable fiber-based chirped pulse amplification systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 504-517 (2001).
[CrossRef]

George, S.

C-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita,  et al, "High conversion efficiency microscopic tin-doped droplet target laser-plasma source for EUVL," Proc. of SPIE 5751, 279-292 (2005)
[CrossRef]

George, S. A.

Ghiringhelli, F.

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

Gibson, E. A.

E. A. Gibson, et al., "Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with Quasi-Phase Matching," Science 302, 95-98 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grudinin, A. B.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansson, B. A. M.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Harilal, S. S.

Hemberg, O.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L. M. B.

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, J. R.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Holmberg, A.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

Hou, K. -C.

Hou, K.-C.

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Izawa, Y.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Jansson, P. A. C.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Jin, F.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Kado, M.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, R. L.

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Khodykin, O. V.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Koay, C. -S.

Koay, C-S.

C-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita,  et al, "High conversion efficiency microscopic tin-doped droplet target laser-plasma source for EUVL," Proc. of SPIE 5751, 279-292 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Lafontaine, B.

Liao, K.-H.

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

Malinowski, A.

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, A.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

McDonald, F. C.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, B.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Miyanaga, N.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Mordovanakis, A. G.

Mourou, G.

Murakami, M.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Myers, D. W.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Nagai, K.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Najmabadi, F.

Nees, J.

Nilsson, J.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, K.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, H.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Norimatsu, T.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

O’Shay, B.

Offerhaus, H. L.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

T. Okuno, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, Y. Tao, K. Nagai, Q. Gu, N. Ueda, T. Ando, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, A. Sunahara, H. Furukawa and A. Sasaki, "Low-density tin targets for efficient extreme ultraviolet light emission from laser-produced plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161501 (2006)
[CrossRef]

O'Reilly, D.

P. Dunne, G. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Reilly, "Prepulse-enhanced narrow bandwidth soft x-ray emission from a low debris, subnanosecond, laser plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 34-36 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Orzechowski, T. J.

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

O'Sullivan, G.

P. Dunne, G. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Reilly, "Prepulse-enhanced narrow bandwidth soft x-ray emission from a low debris, subnanosecond, laser plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 34-36 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Otendal, M.

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Partlo, W. N.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Phillion, D. W.

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

Salzmann, D.

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Schwoerer, H.

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Sequoia, K. L.

Shimkaveg, G.

Silfvast, W. T.

Soileau, M. J.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spitzer, R. C.

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R. H.

R. H. Stulen, "13-nm Extereme Ultraviolet Lithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 970-975 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Sunahara, A.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, A.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Takenoshita, K.

S. A. George, W. T. Silfvast, K. Takenoshita, R. T. Bernath, C. -S. Koay, G. Shimkaveg, and M. C. Richardson, "Comparative extreme ultraviolet emission measurements for lithium and tin laser plasmas," Opt. Lett. 32, 997-999 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita,  et al, "High conversion efficiency microscopic tin-doped droplet target laser-plasma source for EUVL," Proc. of SPIE 5751, 279-292 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Tankala, K.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

Tillack, M. S.

Torruellas, W.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P. W.

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, N.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Usterer, S.

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vaschenko, G. O.

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Vasil'ev, A. F.

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Villanger, A.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vu, K. T.

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

Webster, S.

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, Y.

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, W.

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Usterer, H. Schwoerer, W. Ziegler, D. Salzmann, and R. Sauerbrey, "Effects of a prepulse on laser-induced EUV radiation conversion efficiency," Appl. Phys. B 76, 17-21 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. Dunne, G. O'Sullivan, and D. O'Reilly, "Prepulse-enhanced narrow bandwidth soft x-ray emission from a low debris, subnanosecond, laser plasma source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 34-36 (2000)
[CrossRef]

P. A. C. Jansson, B. A. M. Hansson, O. Hemberg, M. Otendal, A. Holmberg, J. de Groot, and H. M. Hertz, "Liquid-tin-jet laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2256-2258 (2004)
[CrossRef]

H. Tanaka, A. Matsumoto, K. Akinaga, A. Takahashi, and T. Okada, "Comparative study on emission characteristics of extreme ultraviolet radiation from CO2 and Nd:YAG laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041503 (2005)
[CrossRef]

T. Ando, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, N. Ueda, Y. Yasuda, K. Nagai, T. Norimatsu, M. Murakami, K. Nishihara, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, K. Mima, and A. Sunahara, "Optimum laser pulse duration for efficient extreme ultraviolet light generation from laser-produced tin plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151501(2006)
[CrossRef]

T. Okuno, S. Fujioka, H. Nishimura, Y. Tao, K. Nagai, Q. Gu, N. Ueda, T. Ando, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, N. Miyanaga, Y. Izawa, and K. Mima, A. Sunahara, H. Furukawa and A. Sasaki, "Low-density tin targets for efficient extreme ultraviolet light emission from laser-produced plasmas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161501 (2006)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Galvanauskas, "Mode-scalable fiber-based chirped pulse amplification systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 504-517 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. (1)

A. Galvanauskas, M.-Y. Cheng, K.-C. Hou, and K.-H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Eletron. 13, 559-566 (2007)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J.Quantum Electron. (1)

C. C. Renaud, H. L. Offerhaus, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, J. Nilsson, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, D. J. Richardson, and A. B. Grudinin, "Characteristics of Q-switched cladding-pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with different high-energy fiber designs," IEEE J.Quantum Electron. 37,199-206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. C. Spitzer, T. J. Orzechowski, D. W. Phillion, R. L. Kauffman, and C. Cerjan, "Conversion efficiencies from laser-produced plasmas in the extreme ultraviolet regime," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2251-2258 (1996)
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stulen, "13-nm Extereme Ultraviolet Lithography," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 970-975 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

K. T. Vu, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, F. Ghiringhelli, L. M. B. Hickey, and M. N. Zervas, "Adaptive pulse shape control in a diode-seeded nanosecond fiber MOPA system," Opt. Exp. 14, 10996-11001, 2006
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. of SPIE (2)

C-S. Koay, S. George, K. Takenoshita,  et al, "High conversion efficiency microscopic tin-doped droplet target laser-plasma source for EUVL," Proc. of SPIE 5751, 279-292 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brandt, I. V. Fomenkov, A. I. Ershov, W. N. Partlo, D. W. Myers, N. R. Böwering, A. N. Bykanov, G. O. Vaschenko, O. V. Khodykin, J. R. Hoffman, E. L. Vargas, R. D. Simmons, J. A. Chavez, C. P. Chrobak, "LPP EUV Source Development for HVM," Proc. SPIE 6517, 65173J-1 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Webster, F. C. McDonald, A. Villanger, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, B. McIntosh, W. Torruellas, J. Farroni, and K. Tankala, "Optical damage measurements for high peak power ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 5991, 599115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Jin, K. Gabel, M. Richardson, M. Kado, A. F. Vasil'ev & D. Salzmann, "Mass limited laser plasma cryogenic target for 13 nm point x-ray sources for lithography," Proc. SPIE 2015, 151-159 (1993)
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. A. Gibson, et al., "Coherent Soft X-ray Generation in the Water Window with Quasi-Phase Matching," Science 302, 95-98 (2003)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications, (Cambridge University Press, Berkeley, 2000)

K.-C. Hou, et al., "Multi-MW Peak Power Scaling of Single-Transverse Mode Pulses using 80-µm Core Yb-doped LMA Fibers," presented in Post Deadline Paper session at Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Optical Society of America, 2006)

A. E. Siegman, Laser, (Unversity Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1986), Chap. 10.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online) (a) Scaling of saturation energy with fiber core size using core NA of 0.06 (b) Critical peak power for fused silica bulk damage for different core size using core NA of 0.06

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental high average power pulsed fiber laser system showing fiber MOPA with Fabry-Perot (FP) diode seed. Two stages of monolithic single-mode fiber amplifier amplify the seed to kilowatt peak power level. Further amplification by two stages of large mode area (LMA) power amplifiers generates more than megawatt of peak power of nanosecond pulses with high beam quality.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Focal spot image of ≈18µm 1/e2 diameter

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example of numerically obtaining the input seed puls including the effect of saturated gain from an output pulse of known shape and energy. Input pulse shape can be determined by knowing the saturation energy and the small signal gain of the amplifier. The example shown here is for 5-mJ 1064-nm amplified output pulse from a 80-µm Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Saturation energy used in the calculation is 1.8 mJ and the measured small signal gain is 20dB. Note that the peak power of the pulses in this figure is not to scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Amplified pulse after final stage of amplifier reshaped due to gain saturation, (b) Pre-shaped pulse temporal profile from FP seed diode and predicted pulse shape considering cascaded shaping effect for each stage of amplifier

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Examples of amplified pulse with pre-pulses of different contrast and delay: (a) prepulse to main pulse ratio 1:33 with 5.74mJ in the main pulse, (b) pre-pulse to main pulse ratio 1:1.27 with 5.58mJ in the main pulse.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

UCF experimental setup showing tin-doped droplet source, EUV spectrometer and Flying Circus EUV spectrometer.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Color online) Spectrum showing emission from tin-doped water droplet target (a) On the top shows the image of the X-ray CCD camera, spectra at different intensity levels are shown in (b)

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Laser parameters of solid state laser that demonstrated high conversion efficiency (CE) using tin-based target materials

Equations (1)

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I in ( t ) = I out ( t ) 1 + ( G 0 1 ) exp [ t 0 t I out ( t ) dt U sat ] .

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